These help you grasp how to use a particular grammar point, word, particle, or form.
Adding 〜さ to an adjective turns it into a noun, and gives it the nuance that the noun is objective and measurable.
〜そう can be added to adjectives to mark them as speculative, such as おいしそう = "looks delicious".
Adding 〜み to an adjective turns it into a noun with a subjective quality, like the "warmth" of a person or the "weight" of a decision.
Verbs in the command form express strong orders or demands. The form changes depending on the verb type, so learn more, 読め (read it)！
First-person pronouns are words that a speaker or a writer uses when they refer to themselves, like "I" or "we" in English.
か indicates that something is unknown. It's used to form questions, indefinite pronouns, and lists of alternatives.
が marks the subject of a sentence. In other words, whatever comes before が is the person or thing that's doing whatever comes next.
で specifies where or how an activity or event takes place.
と is used to connect two or more words together as companions
と can be used to show a "strong causal relationship." In other words, it shows a condition and a result that always follows.
に is like a pin on a map. It shows where you are, where you are headed, or where you were before.
ね is a sentence ending particle that marks information as shared by the speaker and listener.
の is a nominalizer. It turns non-nouns — things like verbs, adjectives, or clauses — into nouns.
の is like a label maker. It turns a noun into a label that modifies another noun.
は marks the topic of a clause, sentence, or paragraph. It creates focus as well as a nuance of contrast with other potential topics.
へ is like an arrow that points the way to a destination or a direction.
よ is a sentence-ending particle that gives an informative feel.
を tells us what the direct object of a sentence is. In other words, it marks the thing that gets affected by the verb.
Personal pronouns are used to refer to people from various perspectives: the first person (I, we), the second person (you), and the thi…
Plural suffixes attach to the end of nouns to indicate that they are plural.
Second-person pronouns are words like "you" that a speaker uses to refer to their audience.
The stem form is a type of Japanese verb form also known as V-stem form, and 〜ます form—this last name comes from the fact that it can be…
Third-person pronouns are words like "he" and "she." They are used for people who are neither "I" nor "you."
Japanese verbs have different conjugation patterns depending on what type they are — godan, ichidan, or irregular. Learn all about verb…
Adding 〜そう to a verb is the equivalent of "looks like (someone or something) is going to do something" in English.
When a verb ends in 〜させる, it tells us that someone is forced to do the action, or allowed to do the action, depending on context. For t…
The suffix 〜た puts a plain form verb into the past tense. It tells us that the verb is completed or happened before the present moment.…
〜たい is a verb suffix that adds a meaning of desire. Use it to say "I want to do [this verb]."
〜たがる is used to say that someone is "showing signs of wanting to do" something. Use it to say what other people want to do.
〜たりする is used to list actions and states. It indicates the list is incomplete, meaning that there are more things speakers could list.
〜ていた is the past tense version of 〜ている. This form puts emphasis on the duration of a past action.
〜ている shows that a verb is currently happening, like English "ing," or that something happened and there is a lasting result.
When 〜ない appears on the end of a verb, it means it is in the negative plain form. In other words, it has a similar function to "not".
〜なかった is the past tense negative plain form of verbs. It adds the meaning of "did not do [verb]" to a sentence.
ながら is used to indicate that two actions take place simultaneously. It is similar to "while" in English.
〜なさい is a suffix that is used to make polite commands or directions. While polite, it still implies a sense of authority.
〜にくい is a verb suffix that means "difficult to do (the verb)."
The suffix 〜ば puts verbs into the conditional form. In other words, it adds an "if" meaning to a sentence.
〜やすい is a verb suffix that means "easy to do (the verb)."
〜よう is a verb suffix that expresses volition, proposition, or invitation, akin to "let's" or "shall we?" in English.
The passive suffix 〜られる tells us that a verb is done to someone. It takes the emphasis off of who does the action, and places is on who…
〜れる appears on the end of a verb show ability or possibility, similarly to "can" or "be able to" in English.
んです adds an explanatory feel to a sentence. It indicates that something is said based on background information or shared knowledge.
〜かった allows you to make い-adjectives past tense, in a similar way to "was" in English.
い-adjectives can take the suffix 〜がる to describe how other people seem to feel, based on how they look or behave. This lets you state w…
This page teaches you how to put an adjective into the くform and provides basics of its three usages.
Adding 〜くない to the end of an い-adjective makes it negative, kind of like how "not" functions in English.
い-adjectives are one type of adjective in Japanese. Their main function is to describe nouns, and they can take different ending to cha…
The く form can be used to turn い-adjectives into adverbs, in a similar way to "-ly" in English.
A few い-adjectives that relate to time or location can be used like nouns in their く form.
Used for both compliments and contradictions, さすが always adds the nuance that something is inevitable.
だ marks nouns and な-adjectives as present tense and positive, but it can also add an emphatic nuance in some contexts.
だった is a plain form past tense marker, typically used with nouns and な-adjectives.
Often translated as "probably," "I assume," or "I believe," だろう is used to speculate based on your interpretation of something.
でした is a polite past tense marker, typically used with nouns and な-adjectives.
でしょう is used to speculate based on your interpretation of something, though you lack proof. It's often translated as "perhaps," "I assu…
です is used to mark words as polite if they cannot conjugate to show politeness themselves.
な-adjectives are one type of adjective in Japanese. Their main function is to describe nouns, but many can function as nouns themselves…