Tofugu » Culture http://www.tofugu.com A Japanese Language & Culture Blog Thu, 13 Nov 2014 01:00:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=4.0 How Japan Made Halloween Their Own… Then Ruined It For Everybody http://www.tofugu.com/2014/11/11/how-japan-made-halloween-their-own-then-ruined-it-for-everybody/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/11/11/how-japan-made-halloween-their-own-then-ruined-it-for-everybody/#comments Tue, 11 Nov 2014 17:00:10 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=46223 Halloween is over, but Japan is still cleaning up the mess. It seems like every year the outrage against Halloween in Japan increases. A decade ago Japanese people were complaining about foreigners dressing up and riding trains. Now they’re complaining about a lot more. In what feels like only a couple of years, Halloween has become one […]

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Halloween is over, but Japan is still cleaning up the mess. It seems like every year the outrage against Halloween in Japan increases. A decade ago Japanese people were complaining about foreigners dressing up and riding trains. Now they’re complaining about a lot more. In what feels like only a couple of years, Halloween has become one of the biggest (adult) holidays in Japan.

In Tokyo, you begin to see costumes as early as the first weekend in October. Halloween parties run rampant on the weekends. Clubs, bars, and retail stores cash in and push, push, push Halloween down the throats of every open-mouthed citizen. I imagine this is how other Western holidays, like Valentine’s Day and Christmas came about in Japan. It was merely an opportunity for corporations and companies to make money, so they set their marketing wheels in motion. The Japanese versions of these holidays aren’t the same as their original counterparts (for example, on Christmas couples will go on extremely expensive dates with extremely expensive hotel stays… well played, hotel industry!) but they all have a couple things in common:

  1. There are companies making boatloads of money.
  2. These companies push people to spend more money and do certain actions because “it’s what you do during the holidays!”
  3. Eventually, it becomes a cultural norm, and the CEOs of these companies can sit back and relax in their swimming pools full of gold coins.

Halloween has just reached this point, I think. As far as I can tell, Halloween is being marketed as “an adult holiday where you can behave badly, and it’s totally okay!” Bars, nightclubs, and other industries that involve debauchery say this is the biggest business opportunity of the year. This year was the wildest of them all, and it looks like it’s only getting wilder. There has finally been some outcry against it, but unfortunately, there’s too much money being pumped into this Halloween war machine for it to be stopped.

Halloween: One Giant Cosplay Event?

Last year, we wrote Halloween: Japan’s Most Recent Holiday. This article explored Halloween’s rise in popularity, and talked about how Trick-or-Treating never really caught on in Japan. Instead, Japan has zeroed in on the costumes, which I think fits well with Japanese culture. It has turned into a massive cosplay event for adults. We’re famous for our cosplaying, after all!

2014 saw the biggest Halloween turnout yet (Halloween landing on a Friday didn’t hurt either). Shibuya seemed to be the place to be if you were dressing up. Thousands of people in costumes unexpectedly gathered that night, and 200 police officers were dispatched to keep guard. To put things in perspective, one man interviewed by fashionsnap.com said that he felt embarrassed and uncomfortable walking around in his “normal clothes.”

They did a good job dressing up, too. When it comes to Halloween, Japan kinda of does it better than everyone else. Sorry Western countries, Japan won Halloween.

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Photo by TokyoFashion

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Photo by TokyoFashion

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Photo by JapanTimes

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Photo by @komayo_j_u_r

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Photo by mase_1213

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Photo by kemekime

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Photo by 27ringo

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Photo by ryokutya55

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Photo by TokyoFashion

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Photo by sudokeeeeen

Anyway, go waste some time looking at Kotaku and TokyoStyle for more fantastic Japanese Halloween costumes.

“NO MORE HALLOWEEN IN JAPAN!”

halloween-trash-tokyo

Photo by @A_Lvl7

Sure, costumes are great fun, but unfortunately that’s not the only part of Halloween culture that crept its way into Japan’s version of the holiday. Debauchery and a general attitude of being irresponsible has become a Japanese Halloween staple. Perhaps Japan’s Halloween motto should be “Trick & Costume” instead of “Trick or Treat.”

People in Japan have been calling out for “NO MORE HALLOWEEN IN JAPAN!” and for good reason. In some ways, it has gotten out of hand, and I imagine that people are envisioning a future where each proceeding year just keeps getting worse and worse. I hope this won’t happen, but I understand why people are concerned. Halloween left Tokyo coated in trash. Empty snack bags, drink cans, and used costumes were discarded all over the streets and fake blood was smeared on many walls, windows, and countertops.

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Photo by @A_Lvl7

Here’s one story: Twitter user @mitaka_cos found blood in the sink of a public bathroom in Shibuya. He felt disgusted and voluntarily started cleaning it up. Some other people came into the bathroom to find him cleaning up the sink. Unbelievably, they handed him their used blood-soaked costumes and asked him, “can you take care of this too?” He responded with angry words which were followed up with the excuse, “but today is Halloween!” Upon hearing this, he stormed out of the bathroom.

This sort of attitude has been popping up more and more around Halloween in the last few years. It’s a holiday that gives you permission to be bad and some particularly bad apples take advantage of it, even though they’re probably considered good people the rest of the year.

Volunteer Cleaning

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Photo by Shibuya_akkun

But it wouldn’t be Japan without people trying to clean up. After all, Japanese people were known for cleaning up stadium seats after a soccer game at the World Cup. Several volunteers posted pictures of themselves cleaning the streets on Twitter, because they wanted to make the mess-makers realize that they had done something wrong. Shame and guilt go a long ways in Japanese culture.

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It’s okay to enjoy Halloween, but there are simple guidelines to follow, right? Don’t leave Shibuya in a mess. Put your garbage in a garbage can. Even kindergarten kids know that. Is it okay to do whatever you want for the sake of fun? Young people in Shibuya are now cleaning the leftovers from everyone’s fun night. @shibuya_akkun

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We cleaned up the trash in Shibuya ( ´ ▽ ` )ノI never expected people to be so careless in enjoy themselves. It surprises me that they didn’t care about messing up the place. There were still a few people in costumes (walking the streets in the morning). I hope they will feel some sense of shame by watching us clean the streets. We will continue cleaning the streets.

I thought the decision those volunteers made was great, however a few people called them hypocrites. For example @hawk_kaito tweeted:

ゴミ拾いしてることをわざわざ自分でTwitterにあげる人って、「私ゴミ拾いしてるよ!ほら、偉いでしょ!褒めて褒めて!」って感じなんだろうな
I assume those people who cleaned the street and tweeted about it think, “I’m cleaning the street! I’m awesome, right? Praise me!

and @takumi_cast said

自分でボランティアしましたとか ゴミ拾いしましたとか ましてや、 ダメな人と比べて 自分は好い人ですよアピールする人は 絶対に偽善者。 偽善者=悪魔ぢゃけぇ、うざい。
The people who say that they volunteered or cleaned up the garbage are definitely hypocrites. It’s needless to say that those are the appeals of people that think they are better than others. Hypocrites = devils, so I’m annoyed.

There were actually a lot more nasty comments left on Twitter, but many of them deleted their tweets soon after. In some extreme cases accounts were deleted because of the backlash. I guess it’s nice that people support cleaning up so strongly.

Halloween Invades The Yakuza

There’s nothing more Japanese than the Yakuza, so if Halloween is penetrating its way into Japan, it’s going to be embraced by the Yakuza as well. While most adults would be too afraid to play the trick or treat game with the Yakuza (does trick = cut off your pinky?), it appears that many children are immune to that fear. The Yamaguchi-gumi (Japan’s biggest crime family) general offices were handing out pink treat bags to any elementary student who wanted one. Yakuza members stood in the compound entrance with open-armed offers of candy (though it seems like they didn’t wear costumes, what party poopers).

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Trick or Treating isn’t all that popular in Japan yet, so children were overjoyed to find a place giving away free candy, not to mention so much of it! Look at all those future Yakuza members! How cute!

Of course, the people of the internet reacted:

ヤクザといえど時代の流れはしっかり掴んでるな
Even the yakuza are attuned to the trends of the time -2ch

その菓子配るためにどんだけ若いもんの血が流れたかわかっとんのかい!
Do you know how many young yakuza members bled in order to hand out those candies? -2ch

子供が間違っていくなら分かるけどベビーカーを押した母親が自分から行くってどうなの?w
It’s understandable if children go by themselves, but I can’t understand the how the mother can push the baby stroller towards them. haha -2ch

This sort of Yakuza generosity isn’t a new thing. Doing generous, public things has always been part of the Yakuza’s strategy. During New Years, they participated in お年玉, a tradition that involves adults giving envelopes of money to children. The Yakuza, being everyone’s adults, went around to their neighbors handing out envelopes with 10,000-30,000 yen inside ($100-300 USD). I remember in Kyoto when they were doing this too (before the police put pressure on them to stop). Even friends of my husband (non-Japanese) went there to receive money, but I told my husband not to accept it because I thought it was a shameless thing to do.

The Yamaguchi-gumi is also known for assisting with the Great Hanshin Earthquake when it hit Kobe in 1995. They distributed meals and relief supplies and really were the first on the scene to help out. Even with the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, which isn’t even their home region, they sent 25 trucks filled with foods and supplies right away, and even provided places for victims to stay. Some praised the Yamaguchi-gumi while others said it was a publicity stunt. I think this one 2ch comment said it best, though:

震災のときにヤクザの炊き出しにノコノコ並んだ神戸市民を下に見てるわ
Those who pass judgment on the people receiving Halloween candy from the Yamaguchi-gumi are also passing judgment on the Kobe citizens who lined up for meals provided by them during the disaster.

Halloween, Here To Stay

I think Halloween will get crazier and crazier over the next few years, but I also think that opponents to Halloween will become more vocal as well. I hope that soon the two groups can reach some kind of compromise, though. I love the costuming that Japan does. I also love that people are having a good time, and are able to have fun and relax. However, it shouldn’t come at the expense of others. There’s a difference between being an inconvenience and being rude, and Japan will have to figure out where that line needs to be drawn.

As for the Yakuza giving out treats… well, as long as the children are happy, I guess. I hope at least one of them was dressed as a Yakuza gang member for Halloween. I’m sure that would have made for a fun scene. Perhaps the attention caused by all this will make the trick or treat side of Halloween more prevalent and popular in Japan too. If more kids get involved with Halloween, then hopefully some of the drunken debauchery will calm down at the same time.

I’m sure we’ll see Halloween in Japan continue to evolve. It’s a relatively new holiday, one that is still malleable to the effects of the masses and the corporations. I’m interested to see which one wins out the most before we hit the holiday plateau. I guess we can only sit back, relax, and watch to see what happens (hopefully from a vantage point free of smeared blood).

Bonus Wallpapers!

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[640x1136 - Phone]

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Who’s that Pokémon? Yōkai Edition! http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/31/whos-that-pokemon-yokai-edition/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/31/whos-that-pokemon-yokai-edition/#comments Fri, 31 Oct 2014 16:00:43 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=45514 It’s no secret that most Pokémon are based on actual animals found throughout the world. Who could forget gems like Beedrill the giant hornet, Swellow the swallow, and Sunflora the sunflower? How creative! Most Pokémon are pretty easy to figure out (a bird is a bird, a plant is a plant) but there are others that are […]

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It’s no secret that most Pokémon are based on actual animals found throughout the world. Who could forget gems like Beedrill the giant hornet, Swellow the swallow, and Sunflora the sunflower? How creative! Most Pokémon are pretty easy to figure out (a bird is a bird, a plant is a plant) but there are others that are a bit harder to understand for people outside Japan. A considerable number of Pokémon are actually based on myths throughout East Asia, sacred animals of legend, and everyday things. But some of my favorite Pokémon were inspired by yōkai 妖怪, supernatural monsters, ghosts, and phantoms of Japanese folklore.

While Pokémon never delved as deep into the yōkai world as shows like the newer, and almost as popular, Yo-Kai Watch, there are still quite a few Pokémon that were directly influenced by Japanese ghosts and ghouls. Gotta catch ‘em all, Yōkai!

Sazae Oni 栄螺鬼

The sazae oni, or turban shell ogre, is a giant turban shell with a human like body coming out of its shell head. They are created one of two ways: Either a turban snail gets old enough to shape shift, or an overly sexual woman is thrown into the sea, turns into a snail, and lives long enough to become this strange monster.

Sazae oni turn into women and pretend to be drowning as humans pass by on their boats or are walking along the shore. When men try to save or capture a sazae oni, they’re usually eaten alive.

One legend tells of a pirate ship that picked up what looked like a drowning woman. Their intentions were anything but pure and the “woman” slept with them all and then proceeded to take two rather important body parts from each of the pirates. In the end, the pirates had to barter away all of their pirate gold to get their own “gold” back. Their 金玉, that is.

Who’s that Pokémon?

slowbro-fam

It’s Slowbro and Slowking!

They may seem innocent but the Slow family was inspired by the idea of a turban snail coming to life and causing havoc. Slowking is visually the closest to the sazae oni, but they were all inspired by it. As for the shapeshifting, ever wonder why a Slowpoke becomes water/psychic when it evolves into Slowbro?

Sōgen Bi 叢原火 / 宗源火

This is a specific fireball yōkai , similar to a will o’ wisp, which takes the form of a man’s head surrounded by flames and floats around in the sky at night.

Sōgen was the name of a monk who lived in Kyoto a long, long time ago and he was pretty bad at his job. He was always stealing from the temple and selling things off for money. Those aren’t exactly the actions of a pious monk. Finally he got old and died, but because he was such a jerk he was was reborn in hell. The legend says that Sōgen was forced to wander the earth, and it’s said his floating head, shrouded in flames was seen in hovering around Kyoto after he died.

Who’s that Pokémon?

gastly

It’s Gastly!

This one was probably obvious, as there aren’t too many other Pokémon that fit the “floating head covered in fire” description. Though with Gastly it looks more like eerie smoke than fire. Not every Gastly may be the head of Sōgen the terrible monk, but if you notice yours trying to take off with your money and valuables, you may have been (un)lucky enough to find him.

Baku 獏

The baku is pretty scary looking because it’s an amalgamation of a bunch of different animals, kind of like a chimera that eats dreams. But don’t worry, it won’t hurt you.

They originated in China, and in Japan they’re associated with the tapir. They may seem scary but they’re the nice kind of yōkai . Other yōkai are afraid of them and, while they eat dreams, they stick to a diet of bad ones, mostly nightmares. Baku can be seen carved on temples to keep evil spirits and sickness away.

Who’s that Pokémon?

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It’s Drowzee, Hypno, Munna, and Musharna!

All four of these Pokémon were inspired by the dream-eating baku. If the tapir-like noses and the fact that they can use the move “Dream Eater” don’t convince you, just read their most recent Pokédex entries:

Drowzee: “Puts enemies to sleep, then eats their dreams. Occasionally gets sick from eating only bad dreams.”

Hypno: “It carries a pendulum-like device. There once was an incident in which it took away a child it hypnotized.”

Munna: “This Pokémon appears before people and Pokémon who are having nightmares and eats those dreams.”

Musharna: “The dream mist coming from its forehead changes into many different colors depending on the dream that was eaten.”

Jinmenju 人面樹

You might mistake this as an ordinary tree if it didn’t have human heads hanging down from its branches. The heads have faces, human faced fruit that is, that smile and laugh at travelers from above.

Legends of these tree yōkai (another one that came to Japan from China), tell that the fruit would laugh when it was ripe and fall to the ground. Apparently, even the seeds of these plants had faces of their own. They say the fruit faces were a mix of sweet and sour and that we don’t see anymore today because humans ate them all.

Who’s that Pokémon?

exeggutor

It’s Exeggutor!

There’s only one Pokémon that could possibly be a tree with face fruit, and that’s Exeggutor. While its heads look more like coconuts than a soft fruit, there is no mistaking this yōkai. Perhaps exeggcute isn’t made up of eggs at all. Maybe they’re the jinmenju’s seeds.

Yamauba 山姥

An old woman who lives alone in a hut in the mountains. She is kind to travelers and lets them rest at her hovel for the night. Then, while her guests are sleeping, she transforms into a decrepit witch and tries to eat them!

Yamauba are created a couple different ways, but all of them end with a woman living a life in isolation, changing with time and becoming evil. They have white hair, wear red-kimono, and have large, disgusting mouths (probably from devouring so many people).

Who’s that Pokémon?

jynx

It’s Jynx!

Though there are some pretty horrible (read: racist) rumors in the United States and other countries about what Jynx is based on, it’s really inspired by the Yamauba. Jynx is an ice/psychic Pokémon and, because these hags lived in snowy mountains and were corrupted by their surroundings, the description fits. The darker skin is a nod to how they look in Nō plays in which actors paint their faces black, wear silvery-blonde wigs, and red kimono.

Nekomata 猫又

A type of bake-neko 化け猫, a cat that is transformed into a yōkai. But unlike its cousin, the nekomata isn’t something you’ll want to bump into in a back alley. They start off as normal cats then, when they get old, run off into the mountains.

There, they transform, their tails splitting in half, creating two identical tails. Suddenly they can walk on their hind legs, speak, manipulate people, and summon fireballs.

Who’s that Pokémon?

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It’s Espeon!

Considering there is only one split-tailed cat in the (current) Pokémon universe, this may have been an easy guess. But I’d never think of Espeon as something sinister. In fact, while it may have inherited its tail, intelligence, and psychic powers from the nekomata, it looks like thats where the similarities stop, which is probably a good thing for anyone who wants to raise one.

Nukekubi 抜け首

One of the two types of rokurokubi 轆轤首, or yōkai whose heads come off. The nukekubi is less of a yōkai and more of a woman or girl with a curse. When they fall asleep, instead of snoring, or sleepwalking, their heads come off and terrorize the town.

They’ll chase men, suck their blood, and even rip animals apart. At the end of the night the head comes back to its body and the poor girl has no idea what’s happened. Even worse, this can be passed on through your family. So if a mother is a nukekubi, her daughter could be too.

Who’s that Pokémon?

misdreavus

It’s Misdreavus!

A Pokémon that only appears at night to scare people and apparently absorb their fear? That sounds about right. While there haven’t been any cases of a Misdreavus’ body turning up in the Pokémon universe, it is pretty uncanny that it’s also a lady’s floating head that spooks you out of the darkness.

Kamaitachi 鎌鼬

Weasels that dwell mainly in the mountains of Japan and attack travelers. They have spiky fur and claws like steel that can slice through your skin in a flash.

They ambush humans in threes: One pushes the poor guy down, the second slices him up with its claws, and the third heals (only) the fatal wounds with a salve so that the victim won’t die as they make away with pieces of his flesh. Not very nice, but at least they don’t kill you, right?

Who’s that Pokémon?

sneasel-weavile

It’s Sneasel and Weavile!

Sneasel and Weavile look just like the descriptions of the kamaitachi. They’re spiky weasels with sharp claws that you can only find in the icy mountains of the Pokémon world. They’re even dark/ice types. How fitting! Weavile’s original Pokédex description is even more convincing:

“They live in cold regions, forming groups of four or five that hunt prey with impressive coordination.”

Futakuchi Onna 二口女

During the day and with other people, they’re ordinary women, but at night and when they’re alone, they let down their hair to reveal a second mouth in the back of their heads. Futakuchi Onna will eat whoever they live with out of house and home, pulling food into their mouth heads with their hair that can act like hands.

There are a few different ways someone can become a Futakuchi Onna. Sometimes they’re curses, brought on by the mistreatment of others (usually by starving someone to death), or they’re a kind of karmic retribution on someone miserly. They have giant lips and sharp teeth hidden behind the dark, thick hair on a woman’s head.

Who’s that Pokémon?

mawile-megamawile

It’s Mawile!

Just from looking at Mawile it should be pretty obvious that its design was inspired by the Futakuchi Onna. It almost looks like a girl from the front (back?) but when you see the giant fanged mouth coming out of the back (front?) of its head it isn’t so cute anymore. At least the Futakuchi Onna didn’t have teeth that could chew through iron beams like Mawile.

Tsukumogami 付喪神

This is a larger category of yōkai, that a certain Pokémon seems to be based on. They’re basically any type of (once) inanimate objects that either spontaneously gain life or have spirits inhabit them.

Some of the most common tsukumonogami include hahakigami 箒神, living brooms that blows leaves around, honekarakasa 骨傘, discarded paper umbrellas that float around in the sky, and of course the jatai 蛇帯, obi that move like snakes and try to strangle you in your sleep.

Who’s that Pokémon?

banette-megabanette

It’s Banette!

Poor Banette is one of those Pokémon I have a soft spot for. It’s said they start as a Pokédoll that was thrown away. They tend to live near trash and wander around at night, holding a grudge for the child or parent that discarded them. So whatever tsukumonogami that’s in there, it’s similar to the old, tattered umbrella. Coming back, just trying to fulfill its original purpose.

Chōchin Obake 提灯お化け

A specific type of tsukumogami that inhabits a paper lantern. They usually have one eye (but can have two) and a large mouth around their middle, with a long tongue that hangs out.

Luckily they don’t really attack people. They just like to roll their eye and flail their tongue around to scare them in the night.

Who’s that Pokémon?

dusclops-dusknoir

It’s Dusclops and Dusknoir!

These ghost Pokémon are aren’t quite as harmless as their yōkai counterpart. They’re both hollow on the inside; Dusclops sucks things (including people) into its black hole of a body, and Dusknoir sucks in lost souls to guide them home. So maybe Dusknoir isn’t so bad, but a black hole body isn’t somewhere I want to go.

Yuki Onna 雪女

They appear to be strikingly beautiful women, originally viewed as evil creatures who used their ice breath to freeze travelers solid. They’re associated with blizzards and cold winter winds. They have beautiful, long black hair, pure white skin, and piercing eyes.

However, in more recent years Yuki Onna seem have been portrayed as beautiful spirits, not really harming anyone. In some stories they even fall in love and lead almost normal lives with ordinary human men.

Who’s that Pokémon?

frosslass

It’s Froslass!

They didn’t even have to change much to make Froslass. She’s pretty much the exact depiction of the newer, less violent Yuki Onna, sans the black hair. But this Pokémon does have a kimono style design and a pair of piercing eyes. She even has the ice breath! Check out its latest Pokédex entry:

“It freezes foes with an icy breath nearly -60 degrees Fahrenheit. What seems to be its body is actually hollow.”

Nurarihyon 滑瓢

This one is a little creepy. They look like old men, but their heads are engorged. To me they look kind of like lumpy gourds, covered in wrinkles and veins. When people are busy, usually around dinnertime, this thing slips into their house and indulges in all the luxuries therein. Soon everyone is convinced it’s the master of the house and treats it as such. Finally, it slips away into the night.

Other legends say that Nurarihyon originated in the ocean, taunting fisherman. Their bulbous heads floating right below the water. When the fishermen try to catch it, it sinks just out of reach, bobbing back up tease them some more. Nurarihyon are said to be the leaders of all yōkai, making their authority over humans understandable.

Who’s that Pokémon?

jellicent

It’s Jellicent!

While this Pokémon is more loosely based on this yōkai than many of the others, it is said that the lumpy head and strange sea activities of one type of Nurarihyon inspired this Pokémon creation. That would also explain the crown, as Nurarihyon is the ruler of all yōkai, Jellicent’s crown must mean it’s the ruler of.. well, something right?

Hitodama 人魂

These are like will o’wisps (not to be confused with the fireball head that is Sōgen Bi) that appear as colored lights, usually near graveyards or places where someone recently passed away.

They aren’t evil or malicious, just the souls of the dead trying to find their way somewhere. Some of them head toward temples at night, though they have been seen during the day too.

Who’s that Pokémon?

litwick

It’s Litwick!

It’s one of the few Pokémon that is more dangerous than the yōkai it’s based on. Litwick, a ghost Pokémon, seems to be leading people places. While it does this, it drains them of their life force:

“While shining a light and pretending to be a guide, it leeches off the life force of any who follow it.”

Instead of just looking like a ball of light, Litwick has a candle body (perhaps a more modern light to follow). But since it’s a ghost, it could just be a clever disguise to help it lead people around in the dark with its purple flame.

Kodama 木霊

You may have heard of these before, as they were made popular by the Studio Ghibli film Princess Mononoke. They’re tree spirits whose souls can leave their bodies, looking like a ball of light or a misshapen doll.

They’re considered protectors of the forest. You’ll know a kodama inhabits a tree if it bleeds when you try to cut it down. If the spirits themselves appear to someone, they’re supposed to tie a shimenawa around it, because if you cut down a tree with a kodama, the kodama dies too.

Who’s that Pokémon?

celebi-phantump-trevenant

It’s Celebi, Phantump, and Trevenant!

First let’s talk about Celebi: If you’ve seen the fourth Pokémon movie, Pokémon 4Ever – Celebi: Voice of the Forest, you already saw this coming. This legendary pretty much sums up the idea of the kodama. While it looks like an onion fairy, it only shows up to people who respect nature and do everything they can to protect its forests.

Phantump and Trevenant are newer, more accurate representations of the kodama yōkai. They’re spirits that possess trees and, if someone threatens the forest, they can get violent. They’re not exactly kodama though. Instead of a spirit that comes from a tree, Phantump in particular, is supposed to be the spirit of a child who got lost and died in the woods, then inhabits a tree stump. So the process is kind of backwards. Trevenant is more of the protector, check out its Pokédex entry:

“It can control trees at will. It will trap people who harm the forest, so they can never leave.”

It’s a Pokémon Halloween

pokemon-halloween

That’s it! There are a few more yōkai inspired Pokémon out there, but they’re amalgamations of more than one, and the connections aren’t as obvious as the list above. Hopefully this puts you in the right mood for a spooky Halloween night. And remember, gotta catch ‘em all – even the scary ones!

Now if you’ll excuse me, I’ll be in my room hatching shinies in X until my copy of Alpha Sapphire gets here.

Happy Halloween everyone!

Bonus Wallpapers!

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Sources:

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The Skeletal Structure of Japanese Horror Fiction http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/30/the-skeletal-structure-of-japanese-horror-fiction/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/30/the-skeletal-structure-of-japanese-horror-fiction/#comments Thu, 30 Oct 2014 16:00:36 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=45707 Mankind has been telling scary stories ever since we decided to start telling stories at all. It only makes sense—a lot of scary crap happens in life. The horror genre was born from folklore and oral tradition that explored death, sadness, and the unexplained, and grew into a contemporary form of entertainment with a host […]

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Mankind has been telling scary stories ever since we decided to start telling stories at all. It only makes sensea lot of scary crap happens in life. The horror genre was born from folklore and oral tradition that explored death, sadness, and the unexplained, and grew into a contemporary form of entertainment with a host of exemplary graphic novels, literature, games, and film.

Japan ,of course, developed its own tradition of creepy tales entirely independently from the rest of the world. One of the amazing things about Japanese horror is that even with its direct link to traditional folklore and culture, it has proven incredibly popular outside of its country of origin. Japanese horror films, like Ringu and Ju-On: the Grudge, essentially jump-started a love for Asian horror cinema outside of Japan. They prompted Hollywood remakes and they captured the dark imaginations of movie-goers across the globe.

Every last aspect of a classical Japanese horror story’s construction, from structure, to mechanics, to themes and motifs, are integral to the unique sensibilities that have made J-horror so famously eerie. It’s easy to forget how important story structure is to an effective narrative, but the simple details of plot organization and structure determine just about everything that a viewer experiences in a story. In this article, the first of a series about this topic that is so near and dear to my horror-loving heart, I aim to illuminate how plot structure and organization, the blood-soaked backbone of story, contribute to the uniqueness and resonance of Japanese horror.

Visualizing Stories in Japan and the West

junji-ito

The first thing we need to do is look at the differences in storytelling between the Japanese and Western models. This is the sort of thing that is much easier to do visually by using some established narrative diagramming. One of the tools for visualizing how stories are organized is story grammar which is a (sometimes) simple model that displays the ways that a story’s basic structural components interact to further the plot to a resolution. Think of it as a more nuanced version of the model that is taught in primary school.

To understand how Japanese story grammar is different from the Western model, let’s take a look at the story grammar that a typical Western folk tale might follow, as diagrammed by storytelling scholar Utako Matsuyama:

Figure 1

figure by Utako Matsuyama

In a Western story the plot is moved forward by the character’s goals. Bits of story, called episodes, are steered by subgoals that the protagonist needs to accomplish in order to conquer his or her main goal and the successes or failures of that character in meeting those goals determine the outcome. Take “Cinderella” as an example of this Western model of storytelling, she has a clearly defined goal: Go to the ball to hit on the prince. The plot progresses as she encounters opposition to that.

Can a Japanese model of storytelling really be that much more complicated?

figure-2-storytelling

figure by Utako Matsuyama

Instead of having goals and subgoals that carry the plot from beginning to end, the classical Japanese story grammar is guided by a series of actions and reactions that lead a character to a thematically significant resolution. Causality, rather than conflict, is the vehicle in this type of storytelling. These stories move based on character actions (or often actions outside of the control of the characters) and the motivations are often irrelevant or not elaborated upon. Matsuyama posits that the lack of a goal structure is due to the traditional Buddhist value of eliminating worldly desires, which is in direct contrast with the very goal-oriented ideas of the West. Japanese protagonists tend to be unmotivated by an initial goal in the interest of making them more classically “good” in a Buddhist sense.

These types of stories tend to follow one of two paths: a simple action-and-reaction structure, or a complex action-and-reaction structure. In a simple-reaction story, the character’s own actions and the universe’s reactions to them drive the story to a conclusion that may or may not have anything to do with character goals. The complex-reaction path is where character goals come into play. Unlike the West, however, it isn’t the protagonist’s goals that drive the story it is the antagonist’s. In these stories, a “bad” character has a goal path that comes into direct conflict with the protagonist, setting events into motion that lead to an ending.

Utako Matsuyama has developed a mock-up of the archetypal Japanese folk tale to illustrate the complex-reaction story structure:

“The typical plot would be as follows: the main character is an honest and kind person who happens to help a trapped animal, helpless jizo [statue], or hungry god.”

Note, that this wasn’t the character’s goal, it just “happens” to occur. This is the initial action that sets the story in motion.

“Following that event, many good things happen to him.”

The reaction.

“Then, a bad person, usually the good person’s neighbor, sees the good person’s fortune and tries to get the same luck.”

Here is the complex reaction, the introduction of another character that has a strong, motivating goal. The end result being that the bad character will get his comeuppance and the good character will continue to blissfully be good and austere.

“The ending at the story level is that honesty and kindness are rewarded virtues.”

This leads us to the second significant difference between Japanese and Western story grammar: the conclusion. The Japanese story grammar ends with “events and/or emphasis,” whereas the more western model ends with a “resolution.” What that effectively means is that some Japanese narratives don’t need to have a resolution, heavily based on plot events and tying up loose ends. A Japanese story can potentially conclude with plot events or it can end with “emphasis” which is to say that it just ends. The resolution in this case is an emphasis of the virtues or ideas displayed in the story. The nearest Western equivalent that comes to mind is an Aesopian fable that ends with pronounced belief-based morals, or something weird like “The Sopranos” series finale (spoiler alert).

The Grammar of Japanese Horror

one-missed-call

Now you know more than you ever wanted about the structure of folk tales (unless you’re into that sort of thing). But how does this contribute to horror stories in Japan? Since horror stories originated directly from folklore, much of Japanese horror has a similar structure with a lack of goal paths for protagonists and the use of an action-reaction model for plotting.

The lack of a goal structure works for horror because, to be an effective horror protagonist, the viewers must sympathize and be able to imagine themselves in the plight of that character. Relatability is the reason that so many J-horror protagonists are ‘everyday high school/college students’ that just want to live normal lives. These characters don’t typically have a strong goal that sets events into motion, rather a series of actions and reactions begins to unfold around them that puts these characters in peril.

The action and reaction model of plot also works wonders for horror, because it creates a sense of helplessness in being subjected to an uncaring reality. For a grisly example of this model we can point to movies in the notorious Guinea Pig series of films. Known for having such realistic effects for blood and gore, an FBI investigation was conducted to determine if they weren’t just snuff films. The first two movies in the series have no plot besides the kidnapping, drugging, torture, and dismemberment of innocent females. These short films are purely driven by actions and reactions and end without any form of proper resolution beyond an “emphasis” on the terrifying things just seen by the audience.

Taken together, these two key ingredients of Japanese story structure give you the essential recipe for typical Japanese horror fiction. An initial action starts the character’s journey. It will either be something they do themselves, like watching a cursed video tape, or moving into an apartment with an upstairs leak. Or else it will be an action by someone (or something) else that directly affects them, like being selected for a dark government program. This initial action will cause them to either become subject to the whims of an outside entity that has a goal of causing them harm, like a vengeful ghost or a deranged killer (consider this the complex-reaction model), or else the reactions beyond their control build up and threaten to consume them, like a curse, disease, or delirium (consider this the simple-reaction model).

So much of Japanese horror fiction follows this basic structure that, if you start looking for it, you might begin to see it everywhere.

Kishōtenketsu and Horror Without Conflict

fatal-frame

The components that make the recipe for Japanese horror so complex and eerie are the same components that make Japanese scary stories more likely to be told in ways that defy the traditional three-act structure often seen in the West. In the three-act structure, a problem or conflict appears early on, it reaches a tense climax, and is finally resolved. While this style can work for horror stories (and there are some good examples where it does) there is another model of development that is often employed for great effect with horror stories. That style is called kishōtenketsu (起承転結).

In Japan, kishōtenketsu is a very common way of structuring stories, poems, and even arguments (more on that in another article). To summarize, kishōtenketsu is a four-act structure that contains an introduction (起), development (承), twist (転), and resolution (結). Here’s how it plays out: act one introduces the topic, setting, characters etc. Act two elaborates on this information. Act three, the main event when it comes to horror stories, introduces a major twist that changes the way all the information is perceived. Finally, act four concludes by reconciling what you learned from the first two sections with shocking new information in the third.

Since kishōtenketsu revolves around this twist in the third act, it is not well-suited for describing conflict like the Western three-act model. Instead it conveys discovery and a change of perspective that has far reaching consequences. This works for horror especially well, because, if what you discover in the third act is a little scary, it makes everything else scary by association.

The Worldwide Resonance of Japanese Horror

disney-ghost-hitchhikers

Photo by Mark Willard

One of the reasons that Japanese horror has been able to make such a smooth and influential transition to the West and other parts of Asia, is because of the similarity of the Japanese kishōtenketsu style to how horror stories are told elsewhere. There is something very intuitive about having horror stories that operate on a twist ending. I mean, it may sound obvious, but finding out some scary information tends to make people scared, and even more so when you thought everything was okay just before the reveal.

Scary folk tales and urban legends from around the world have used the kishotenketsu model without calling it that. It’s likely that you have heard urban legends that follow the kishōtenketsu model to a T. Take for instance “The Licked Hand” or “The Vanishing Hitchhiker.” If you haven’t heard these already, and they are pretty popular especially around Halloween. Click the links above and give them a read. When you get back I’ll show you how they fit into the kishōtenketsu mold.

The Licked Hand

Intro (起): A young girl is home alone with only her pet dog for comfort.

Development (承): She hears on the news of an escaped convict and becomes frightened. She is too scared to go to sleep without letting the dog lick her hand from beneath her bed.

Twist (転): When she awakes she discovers that her dog is dead and has been the entire night.

Conclusion (結): She finds the words “HUMANS CAN LICK TOO” written in blood.

 The Vanishing Hitchhiker

Intro (起): A young man is driving home in the rain late one night.

Development (承): He stops for a young, beautiful woman that is motioning for a ride and offers to take her home.

Twist (転): When he arrives at the woman’s house he discovers that the woman has disappeared from his car.

Conclusion (結): He knocks on the door of the woman’s house and is informed by an older gentlemen that the woman was his daughter who died four years ago on this very night, still trying to get home.

In stories like these, the twist changes the paradigm and makes the prior events scary, when before they were innocuous. The conclusion answers the questions raised by the twist in a way that situates the story’s plot. Scary folklore like this permeates many cultures outside of Japan and they form the baseline for how these cultures understand horror. The worldwide popularity of Japanese horror can possibly be explained by the fact that the Japanese approach to horror may have transitioned more easily to other cultures than love stories or action stories would if told in the same style.

Only Clawing at the Surface…

kuniyoshi-witch-and-skeleton

Japanese storytellers are markedly innovative and subversive. New ways to tell stories are constantly popping up in books and in cinema, but even contemporary horror stories often show a deep connection to the folkloric tradition of storytelling in Japan. I hope I’ve been able to show that some of the very basic things about story construction can carry a lot of weight.

Please join me next time as I discuss the mechanics of Japanese horror stories, focusing on the use of atmosphere and emotion. For now, I’ve taken up enough of your timeyou should be watching scary Japanese movies! Happy Halloween!

Bonus Wallpapers!

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References:

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Over a Thousand Years of Service: Japan’s Oldest Businesses Reign Supreme(ly Old) http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/28/over-a-thousand-years-of-service-japans-oldest-businesses-reign-supremely-old/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/28/over-a-thousand-years-of-service-japans-oldest-businesses-reign-supremely-old/#comments Tue, 28 Oct 2014 16:00:30 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=44383 Businesses die like anything else. I used to give joke directions to a house where I lived that involved a whole sequence of useless instructions like “turn left where the dry cleaner used to be.” If you’ve lived in the same place long enough, you can probably do the same. I can’t begin to count […]

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Businesses die like anything else. I used to give joke directions to a house where I lived that involved a whole sequence of useless instructions like “turn left where the dry cleaner used to be.” If you’ve lived in the same place long enough, you can probably do the same. I can’t begin to count the number of places where I used to shop that have gone to the great strip mall in the sky, or the number of restaurant dishes I find myself craving that I’ll never be able to have again. No surprise, I guess, when the average lifespan of a company listed in the S&P 500 index of leading US companies today is just 15 years.

But a few businesses in the world have managed to hang in there for a mind-bogglingly long time, and a lot of them are in Japan. In America, we tend to think it’s impressive if a building is two hundred years old; we’d never expect that building to house the same hotel or restaurant that it did when it opened. But in Japan, there are 3,146 companies that are over 200 years old, and  21,000 companies that are over 100 years old. You can stay at a hotel that’s been in business since 705 and buy candy that’s been made at the same shop since the 16th century. There are also companies that have been owned by the same family since the day they opened, and one on that list may be familiar, because you can buy their products even if you don’t live in Japan.

Seriously Traditional Inns

japans-oldest-companies-hoshi-ryokan

Photo by Namazu-Tron

When you get into researching the history of companies with record lifespans, you find that there are a lot of arguments about how you count what’s oldest and even what counts as being in business. But there’s one fact that seems to be agreed upon: the oldest hotels in the world are in Japan.

The first guest checked in to Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan in Yamanashi in 705. That’s not a typo – the inn was really founded over a thousand years before the United States was even considered a country. It’s recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the world’s oldest hotel. The same family has run the place for 52 generations, and some of the staff also pass their jobs down to their children.

Just like the old claim to fame that “George Washington Slept Here,” the inn mentions some of its most famous customers on its web page, though they predate George by quite a bit. For example, in 752, Kouken, the 46th Emperor, was reputedly cured of an illness by bathing in the local spring water, and Tokugawa Ieyasu slept here twice! (For those of you who aren’t up to speed on your important shoguns, in the late 16th century he was founder of the last line of shoguns to rule before the Meiji restoration.)

japans-oldest-companies-Spa_bath_at_Hoshi_Ryokan

Close behind, Houshi Ryokan has been in business since 718, and for 46 generations has been run by the same family, with each proprietor taking the name Zengoro Houshi. Many people dream of starting a business, and that’s how this one started, but probably not in the way you’d think. Not only is this company old, it claims that its origins are divine. In 717, Buddhist priest Taicho hiked up the sacred mountain Hakusan, and the deity of the mountain appeared to him in a dream. The deity instructed him to go to the village of Awasu, where the people didn’t know that they were sitting right on top of a hot spring with wondrous healing powers. Taicho ordered his disciple Garyo Houshi to build an inn while he went off to meditate and achieve satori.

Oddly, although these places have been around for a thousand years, apparently there’s been very recent contention for the title of oldest. Houshi’s website says they were recognized as such in 1994 and you’ll find references indicating that as recently as 2006, they still held the title. It must be pretty shocking to wake up one morning to find that you’re not the oldest hotel anymore. What did the staff at Keiunkan do, go back to the 8th century in a time machine?

Another hotel that’s said to go back to 717 is Kinosaki Onsen Ryokan Senennoyu-koman in Hyogo, Kinki prefecture. Another dream business with a somewhat divine origin, its founder, Gonnokami Hiuke, dreamt about four Gods who told him he needed to live there from that point onward to protect his descendants. He built a shrine to those gods, and those descendants founded Kinosaki Onsen.

Former, Disputed, and Elusive Contenders

japans-oldest-companies-construction-company

Photo by jpellgen

You’ll see some other contenders on lists of the oldest companies, but some of them have issues, including the one that for a long time headed the list.

The saddest story is that of the Kongou Gumi construction company, a builder of Buddhist temples. Founded in 587, for an incredibly long time they were world’s oldest, continuously operating family business. A recent president attributed their longevity partly to their flexibility in passing responsibility down the family line: rather than always choosing the oldest son, leadership would go to the one best suited for the job. Sometimes it wasn’t even a son – they used the common Japanese practice of adopting son-in-laws to keep the family name going, and the 38th leader was actually a woman (Imagine that!).

Unfortunately, age doesn’t always mean wisdom, and in 2006 the management found themselves in excessive debt, including investments made during the 1980s real estate bubble. They were acquired by Takamatsu, a large Japanese construction firm, and while you can still get a temple built by them, they are now a subsidiary, not an independent company.

Then there’s Ikenobo Kadokaia, which has been around since 587. The problem is that not everyone agrees this is a “company,” as the BBC puts it: “However, its stated purpose is the promotion of traditional floral arranging, which is not necessarily commercial in nature.” Basically, the argument is that if you start including organizations and associations and universities, it’s a different list. That makes sense to me, so I’m counting this one out.

And although we can’t tell you much about them because somehow they’ve managed to keep going this long without getting a lot of press, we should probably give a shout-out to Tech Kaihatsu, a machinery firm which started as a smithy in 760, and Genda Shigyo, which has been making paper goods since 771.

All in the Family

japans-oldest-companies-akafuku-honten

Photo by Captain76

Japan is also a country with a strong tradition of handing businesses down in the family.  There’s an international organization, Les Hénokiens, a fraternity of companies that are at least 200 years old and have stayed in the control of one family to the present day. Its oldest current member is the Houshi Ryokan – an honor that passed to them after the sad swallowing-up of the Kongou Gumi construction company. There are some other impressive Japanese members as well.

Akafuku is a tea house and confectionary that’s been serving pilgrims to Ise Grand Shrine since 1707. They make a red bean paste mochi in a wavy shape meant to symbolize the waters of the Isuzu River, “with the three ridges in the sweet bean paste representing the clear water that flows through the river, and the white mochi depicting the pebbles that lie on the riverbed.”

japans-oldest-companies-akafuku

Photo by: ajari

In their version of “George Washington Ate Here,” they tell the story of how in 1911, the Empress Meiji heard of the reputation of their mochi, and wanted to try some. Apparently concerned that the empress was too posh to eat something made with the brown sugar they’d always used, they made it with white sugar for the first time. I guess they knew their customer, because she ordered it repeatedly, and afterwards the owner celebrated May 19th as “Homare-Bi (Day of Honor),” commemorating the day they first sent rice cakes to the Empress.

Another member of Les Hénokiens is Okaya, a trading company that started as a hardware store in Nagoya in 1669. Which I’m sure is very fascinating, but it’s hard for them to compete for the interest of this writer in the company of sweet shops and of the next member on the list, which is also the one most of you have probably heard of: Gekkeikan Sake.

japans-oldest-companies-sake

Photo by Christian Kaden

As far as I can tell, this the only company on this list whose product you can buy overseas. I have to confess, in my house, we have long been sake snobs. The only kanji my husband can read are the characters for daiginjo (大吟醸) denoting the highest grade of sake. And since Gekkeikan is the brand you can buy at any crummy liquor store (they have 25% of the US sake market) I’ve never thought much of it. But they’ve been in business since 1637, and they claim to base their corporate philosophy on “Quality, Creativity, and Humanity,” and who can argue with that? So maybe I should reconsider.

Last, but very much not least, is the confectionery Toraya. There’s no record of when they first opened, but they were already doing a booming business in Kyoto in the 1600s. They opened a store in Tokyo’s Asakusa district, where they are now headquartered, in 1869, when the capital also moved there.

This last category is the most interesting one to me, because it taught me a cultural lesson about something I now realize is kind of a recurring theme. You often see dramas and movies where one of the central conflicts is between parents who were planning to hand down a business to their child who wants to go pursue a different dream. In the context of the kind of family business longevity we see in this article, this is surely a much bigger deal than it seemed from my American point of view. And you see the more subtle point in fiction as well – where there’s a child who has gone off to do something instead of taking over the business, and the parent who is okay with it. That’s a bit of character development that will be more meaningful to me now, and hopefully to you too.

Bonus Wallpapers!

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Wasei-Eigo: I Can’t Believe It’s Not English! http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/27/wasei-eigo-i-cant-believe-its-not-english/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/27/wasei-eigo-i-cant-believe-its-not-english/#comments Mon, 27 Oct 2014 16:00:07 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=44294 Borrowing words from other languages is a phenomenon as old as language itself. That’s why, even though you probably don’t speak French, Latin, German, Spanish, AND Japanese, you can somehow comprehend the following (however unlikely) sentence: “I decided to carpe diem and go to a fiesta instead of taking a siesta, but the party was […]

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Borrowing words from other languages is a phenomenon as old as language itself. That’s why, even though you probably don’t speak French, Latin, German, Spanish, AND Japanese, you can somehow comprehend the following (however unlikely) sentence:

“I decided to carpe diem and go to a fiesta instead of taking a siesta, but the party was just déjà vu all over again, so I spent most of the time eating sauerkraut and wishing a tsunami would come and sweep me out to sea.”

Linguists love to argue about why and how exactly this word borrowing happens. For pure practicality’s sake? Because the speaker wants to show off with fancy schmancy foreign words? Just because it’s a fun way to spice up conversation? Whatever the reason, the incorporation of foreign loanwords into native languages is pervasive, and Japanese is no exception.

As you might know, modern Japanese is stuffed not only with Chinese-origin loanwords but also a hearty helping of gairaigo (外来語:loanwords from languages other than Chinese, ranging from English to Dutch to French). Koichi’s discussed some English loanwords here (and some of the strange definitions they’ve acquired) and Sarah W. gives a great overview of gairaigo here.

But that’s not all. The widespread diffusion of English throughout the world has been incorporated and integrated into a variety of languages in a variety of ways. In the words of linguist Ishino Hiroshi, “the roman alphabet now belongs to everyone.” And there’s no better example of this phenomenon than wasei eigo (和製英語), literally “made-in-Japan English.”

Wasei eigo is another topic linguists drool over. Unlike English gairaigo loanwords, most linguists classify wasei-eigo vocabulary as “pseudo-loanwords” or “pseudo-English” or “pseudo-Anglicisms.” So what makes these loanwords “pseudo”? Because wasei-eigo refers to words quite literally manufactured in Japan. By splicing together never-before-seen combinations of English words (often dissected parts of English words, and sometimes with a Japanese word welded on for good measure) and then sliding it through a katakana processing unit, wasei-eigo has been coming hot-off-the-presses since at least the Meiji Period (1868). Essentially these are brand-spanking-new morpheme and phoneme combinations that no native English speaker has ever heard or used.

But that doesn’t mean you don’t need to learn them! Wasei-eigo is a living part of the Japanese language—you can hear it on NHK news and in the street; you can see it on billboards and in magazines. Given that fact, I thought it might be useful to provide a mini dictionary of English for Japanese learners, complete with example sentences shamelessly ripped from real live and recent Japanese sources.

A note of caution! Because of the endless experimentation possible, new wasei-eigo are constantly being cooked up from English ingredients. However, they don’t all catch on and become integrated into the vocabulary at large, and even if they do they’re often fads that fade with time. Keeping that in mind, I tried to choose words with apparently high circulation and staying power so you don’t end up trying to use a phrase that is sooo last year (like that phrase is).

Prefixes and Suffixes

In, out, up, down—such unassuming little syllables that it’s easy to forget they exist. But then wasei-eigo came along to give them a new reason for living, turning them into prefixes and suffixes, daring to put them in places you’ve never seen them before. And then there are the words like “my” and “pink” that have been reinvented as prefixes in their own right. Welcome to the wonderful world of wasei-eigo.

In Key (インキー)

woman-locks-keys-in-car

Photo by Herry Lawford

Have you ever accidentally locked yourself out of your own car, tugging desperately at the door handle only to realize with horror that your keys are still safely stashed inside the vehicle? Then, congratulations, you already know what it means to in-key.

インキーしてしまったらどうすればいいのか
What should you do after you’ve in-keyed?
From: http://torack7.blog.fc2.com/blog-entry-563.html

Bed In (ベッドイン)

This one requires a few ellipses to explain. It does mean to get in bed…but with someone else…in order to do engage in decidedly un-family-friendly activities together…

実録! 男が「初めてベッドインする彼女」にギョッとした経験・15選
True Stories! 15 Men’s Startling Experiences With The Girlfriend That They Bed-In For the First Time
From: http://woman.mynavi.jp/article/140507-55/

Goal In (ゴールイン)

When someone scores the winning goal in a soccer game, wins the final point in a tennis match, or crosses a finish line in a race, they’ve goal in-ed. But this word can also lend the sort of triumphant feeling of victory to non-athletic endeavors as well. Any time you accomplish a goal or achieve something you’ve been struggling for, you’ve goal in-ed. Within the second usage, getting married seems to be a particular popular goal to in.

ボブは1着でゴールインした。
Bob goal in-ed first.
From: Weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

一度別れてもゴールインするカップルの特徴
Characteristics of Couples That Goal-In Even Though They Broke Up Once Before
From: http://slism.net/love/wakaretehukuen-goal.html

My Pace (マイペース)

snail-going-slow

Photo by きこう

This word can be a character trait, an adverb, or a verb in the right circumstances. While its origins probably lie in the English phrase “to do something at one’s own pace,” from there it morphed into doing something your own way, i.e. without being influenced by other people. There’s even a song about it:

マイペース (SunSet Swish)

彼女はマイペースだ。
She’s my pace.
From: Weblio.com’s Email例文集

My Boom (マイブーム)

What’s your boom? It helps to know that “boom” is a fairly common suffix in wasei-eigo used to describe a current trend or fad, like a “K-Pop boom.” When it’s YOUR boom as opposed to society’s boom, it’s “my boom”—in other words, it’s used to refer to your current obsession(s).

皆さんのマイブーム教えてください
Everybody please share your my boom.

なぜだか急に卵がマイブーム
For some reason suddenly my boom is eggs.
From: http://girlschannel.net/topics/17739/

My Bag (マイバッグ)

Not just any old bag will do—you can’t start referring to all bags as my bag willy-nilly. This word is strictly reserved for reusable shopping bags of your preferred style, size, and material. A number of cities and towns across Japan have been campaigning for a “My Bag Movement,” encouraging their citizens to forgo planet-strangling plastic bags at the store and instead use a “my bag.”

マイバッグを使用して、レジ袋削減に取り組みましょう。
Let’s work on reducing disposable shopping bags by using my bag.

http://www.city.fukuroi.shizuoka.jp/kbn/15200230/15200230.html

急に思い付いてスーパーに立ち寄った時「あ!今日はマイバッグ忘れた~」とならないようにできれば常時携帯しておきたいものです。
I want to somehow set up my cell phone so that I can avoid suddenly realizing “Oh! I forgot a my bag today!” whenever I drop by the supermarket.
From: http://allabout.co.jp/gm/gc/58811/

Pink Salo(n), Pink Bira/Chirashi, Pink Eiga, etc. (ピンサロ, ピンクビラ, ピンク映画, etc.)

pink-flowers

Photo by きこう

Remember the days when pink used to be an innocent color, reserved for flowers and toys and kitten collars? In Japan, at least, those days are over. As a prefix attached to an array of other nouns, pink tells you that whatever the next noun is, it’s probably a sexy version of that noun. This works similarly to how in English “blue” is (or maybe was at this point?) used to signal XXX-rated material, as in “a blue movie.” You can probably guess what a pink eiga (pink movie) is, then. A “pink salon” is a euphemism for a sexual establishment that usually fronts as a bar or nightclub. And a “pink bira” (pink bill) or “pink chirashi” (pink leaflet) is a flyer handed out on streets to advertise any number of other “pink” places or activities.

ピンサロで働いている女の子を本気で好きになってしまいました。
I’ve seriously fallen for a girl who works at a pink salon.
From: http://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail/q1259517477

ピンクビラ等について、次の行為が禁止されました。
• 公衆電話ボックス内、公衆便所内又は電柱等の公衆の見やすい屋外の場所等への掲示、配置
• 公共の場所における頒布
• 人の住居等への配付、差入れ
The followings acts are prohibited in regards to pink bira and the like:
•Posting in public telephone booths, public bathrooms, or on telephone poles outdoors that can be easily seen by the general public, etc.
•Distributing in public areas
•Inserting into mailboxes of residential homes
From: http://www.police.pref.chiba.jp/legal/rules_leaflets/

初めてピンク映画館に行ってきたので、これから行ってみたい人への入り方や個人的な感想・注意点等をつらつらと書いています。
Because I went to a pink eigakan for the first time, I’m writing at length about how to enter one and my own impressions/important points for people who want go at some point.
From: http://togetter.com/li/572640

Cost Down (コストダウン)

Once you get the hang of how “down” works as a wasei-eigo suffix, you’ll be able to figure out most words with it relatively easily. Basically, “down” is wasei-eigo for “to lower” or “to decrease.” So cost down means to lower costs.

私たちはコストダウンを目指している。
We’re seeking to cost down.
From: Weblio.com’s Email例文

Manner Up (マナーアップ)

Here’s another popular wasei-eigo suffix. Similarly to “down,” “up” usually means “to raise,” “to increase,” or “to improve.” So “taste up” means to improve the taste to something. That’s basically the case with manner up, as well—“to increase manners”—but a smoother English translation in this case would be “to improve manners.” Either way, things are moving in an upward direction. Schools, organizations, and city governments LOVE this word, and they particularly love to use it in posters and public service announcements and the like as a rallying cry to improve people’s manners.

図書館では、定期的にマナーアップキャンペーンを行っています。
A manner up campaign is periodically held at the library.
From: https://www.library.yame.fukuoka.jp/mannerup.html

Image Down/Image Up (イメージアップ/イメージダウン)

too-many-japanese-posters

Photo by gullevek

Companies, organizations, public figures, and the like all have a certain image to keep up, right? These words come in handy when describing real or attempted shifts in those images. When their public image improves, it’s image up; when their public image is tarnished, ruined, or otherwise destroyed, it’s image down.

当選したいなら、イメージアップするつもりでないとね。
If you want to be elected, you’d better plan to image up.
From: weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

このスキャンダルにより我が社はひどくイメージダウンしてしまった。
Due to this scandal our company has severely imaged down.
From: weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

English/Japanese Hybrids

Here you’ll find the chimeras of wasei-eigo, half-Japanese and half-English hybrids that run wild through the fearsome linguistic plains. While these might seem highly exotic, they’re really not much different from pie a la mode or chicken gratin—examples where useful bits of French were welded onto English words in order to create a new word (and sometimes a new recipe!).

Butter Kusai (バタ臭い)

butter

Photo by Casey Bisson

Literally, “butter stink.” This adjective can be used to describe anything that reeks of the foreign and of Western or Westernized styles in particular (land of butter, apparently).

そのブランド戦略専門家は、新商品にバタ臭い名前を付けるように言った。
The brand strategist professional told us to give the new product a butter stink name.
From Weblio英語基本例文集

こんなバタ臭いセーラームーンは嫌だ。
I’m not a fan of this butter stink Sailor Moon.
From: http://design.style4.info/2012/01/realistic-sailor-moon/

Datsu Salaryman (脱サラ)

Literally, “to de-salaryman.” Here’s a juicy cluster of wasei-eigo goodness. First of all, salaryman, itself a wasei-eigo word, became so popular that it was exported internationally. But this isn’t just your run-of-the-mill salaryman, this is a datsu sarariman. One becomes a datsu salaryman by quitting your office job, and striking out on your own, often with the connotation of freeing yourself from the hamster wheel and/or starting your own business.

清水の舞台から飛び降りたつもりで脱サラした。
Convinced to take a leap of faith and plunge into the dark, I datsu salaryman-ed.

Oyaji Gag (オヤジギャグ)

Literally, “an old man gag” or “a dad gag.” Gag is probably an appropriation based off of “gag gifts” and the like, but here the meaning is much closer to joke. Whenever someone tells a real groaner—a cheap joke or a stupid pun that you’d expect your middle-aged uncle or embarrassing father to cook up, –they’ve told an oyaji gag. I’m a dork enough to really enjoy these, so I couldn’t help but include a few examples below.

使えそうなオヤジギャグを100個集めてみました。使い方を間違うと痛い目を見るオヤジギャグですが、絶妙なタイミングで使うと人気者になれるかもしれません。
I’ve collected one hundred usable oyaji gags. If you don’t use them correctly it can be a painful experience to witness, but if you use them with perfect timing and delivery you just might become more popular.

アルミ缶の上にあるみかん
Arumi kan no ue ni aru mikan.
A tangerine with an aluminum can on top.

新しいのがあったらしい
Atarashii no ga atta rashii
There seems to be a new one.
From: http://matome.naver.jp/odai/2136602894164225401

Gai Talent (外タレ)

tommy-lee-jones-is-boss

Photo by John Koetsier

Literally, “outside talent.” Here “talent” means celebrities of all stripes, regardless of their level of talent. The “outside” bit is shorthand for foreign or foreigner, so when you put the two together you get a foreign celebrity.

好きな外タレいっぱい来日する
A bunch of my favorite gai talent are coming to Japan.
From: https://twitter.com/megu_OOR/status/445690629331238912

Nomyunication (ノミュニケーション)

This one’s an oldie but goodie. I couldn’t resist including it even though it’s dramatically fallen in popularity over the years and is now regarded as only part of the older generation’s active vocabulary. This is probably due to the circumstances of its creation, circumstances that have now drastically changed. Nomyunication is a mash-up of nomu for “to drink” and the English loanword “communication.” While this can simply mean the (seemingly at least) enhanced ease of communicating while drunk, it was practically a business philosophy in Japan during the 1980s when regularly drinking with clients and within the company was all but required. When the economy took a sharp nose dive, this strategy lost much of its luster and the word went with it. Which is a pity, because it’s so darn clever.

そもそも、ノミュニケーションというのが出来たのは、高度経済成長時代に、会社運営を円滑に行うために思考錯誤された結果であると考えられる。
In the first place, nomyunication came into being during the high-growth economic period, as the result of mistaken thinking that sought to conduct harmonious business operations.

http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/1366/essays/031214nomi.htm

Homodachi (ホモ達)

Literally, “homosexual friend.” Homodachi is what happens when homo and tomodachi merge, so if you hear someone say it, you’re not imagining things. It means exactly what its component parts mean, that is, it’s a noun that can be used to refer to your gay friends. However, in other contexts it can also be used to refer to one’s same-sex boyfriend/girlfriend/lover.

@nirvanagi なぎさんホモダチいっぱいいるでしょう
Don’t you have a lot of homodachi, Nagi?
From: https://twitter.com/sekkenw46/status/303373548083372032

プーチン君とメドベージェフ君はホモ達ですか。
Are Putin and Medvedev homodachi?
From: http://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail/q1355867943

Bubble Keizai (バブル経済)

bubble-on-grass

Photo by Jay Morgan

Literally, “bubble economy.” This isn’t a casual word that can be used in a variety of general situations, but it’s so common that it’s worth committing to memory. In the simplest terms, post-World War II the Japanese economy rapidly ballooned and then, like a bubble, it popped. While it might seem like economic jargon, this is actually a general use word at least as widespread and frequently referenced as the “Great Depression” is used as shorthand for a period of American cultural and economic history.

日本側は、日本経済がバブル経済崩壊後、最も長い期間の経済回復を続けていることを強調した。
The Japanese side emphasized that Japan’s economy is continuing the longest period of economic recovery since after the bubble keizai collapsed.
From: Weblio.com’s 財務省

Elite Shain (エリート社員)

Literally, “elite worker.” Think Wall Street. To qualify as elite in this context means to be a white collar employee at a large company.

田口氏は、かつては将来を嘱望されたエリート社員だった。
Taguchi was previously a promising elite shain.
From: http://www.hh.iij4u.or.jp/~iwakami/rstru1.htm

U-Turn Gensho (Uターン現象)

Literally, “U-Turn Phenomenon.” No, Japan’s not facing a sudden rash of eccentric driving behavior involving lots of u-turns. The phenomenon in question here actually refers to the growing numbers of people who, after working or studying in cities (primarily Tokyo, but others as well), ditch the neon lights and return to their hometowns to settle down and make a living. U-Turn gensho is used for the socio-cultural trend at large, and U-Turn sha (U-turn people) is used to identify individual people who make up the larger phenomenon.

彼女と知り合ってから、私の人生は大きくUターン現象を起こし始めている。
After getting to know her, the U-turn gensho started happening to my life in a big way.
From: http://www.yumenomizuumi.com/blog/2012/12/274

Uターン者の生活体験
My Personal Experiences as a U-Turn Sha
私がUターンした理由は、母が80歳を超え入退院を繰り返すようになったが、今のような介護制度がなかったからでした。その母も、平成19年の3月に3回忌を終えました。
The reason I U-turned is that my mother (who is over eighty) came to be repeatedly hospitalized, and there wasn’t a nursing home system like there is now.
From: http://www.amami-setouchi.org/node/420

Cushion Kotoba (クッション言葉)

cushion-words

Literally, “cushion words.” Delicate situations that require some verbal padding most often take place with the use of these so-called cushion words. Japanese in particular has a built-in lexicon of set phrases and expressions that function as cushion words to soften the blow, create a softer landing, and generally just keep everything as soft and squishy as a sofa cushion. These words are particularly important in business situations.

好感度をグッとUPさせるクッション言葉の使い方
使い方次第で会話をスムーズに進めるメリットがあります。そこで、クッション言葉を使うコツをまとめてみました
How to Use Cushion Words to Instantly Increase Good Will
There are myriad advantages to smoothly progressing conversations that depend upon the use of these words. So I’ve collected here tricks to using these cushion words.
From: http://matome.naver.jp/odai/2135873192976055901

Apo Nashi (アポなし)

Literally, “without appointment.” I’ve included this one so that you’ll be aware of the existence of the suffix -nashi, which appears as the caboose on a number of (often unrecognizably abbreviated) English words. In this case, it’s appointment, first shortened to apo and then rounded out with the nashi. You can ask a business office or doctor’s office, beauty parlor or tattoo parlor, if they’ll see you apo nashi. Alternatively, they might come right out and state (or have written on signs) whether or not they’ll see you apo nashi.

アポなしでご来社頂いても応対しかねますのでご留意下さい。(メールで書く場合)
Please bear in mind that we will be unable to receive you even if you give us the pleasure of arriving at our company, if you do so apo nashi.
From: Weblio.com’s Email例文集

Kyoiku Mama (教育ママ)

Literally, “Education Mama.” This word has a decidedly negative connotation, so it’s not something you want to start accusing people of, at least to their face. As a stereotypical image, a kyoiku mama is unhealthily obsessed with the education of her children, constantly pushing them to achieve greatness with every shoelace they tie and shape they sort, pushing meals through the doggie door to their children’s rooms (dungeons) where they are forced to spend every waking and maybe even non-waking hour studying. Critics of pushing children to overachieve as well as annoyed children will use this word to describe demanding (although ultimately well-meaning) parents.

あの私立校には特に教育ママが多いという評判だ.
That private school has a reputation of there being a particularly large number of kyoiku mama.
From: Weblio.com’s 研究社 新和英中辞典

教育ママではなくても優秀な子を育てた方は?
How to Raise Good Children Without Becoming a Kyoiku Mama?

自分は教育ママには絶対なりたくないですが、やはり親として子供にはいい大学に行って、安定した職業についてもらいたいと願っています。
I definitely don’t want to become a kyoiku mama but of course as a parent I want my child to go to a good college and have a stable job.
From: http://oshiete.goo.ne.jp/qa/8193187.html

Etc.

In the previous two sections, I tried to tame the wild variety of wasei eigo at least somewhat by placing as many of them as possible in some sort of cohesive category. Alas, not all of them fit, so this is where the rest of them ended up.

Hair Manicure (ヘアマニキュア)

hair-coloring

Basically, instead of coloring your fingernails with polish, you’re coloring your hair. But don’t worry, there’s no nail polish or cuticle clippers involved in this procedure. If you’re scheduled for a hair manicure or decide to do-it-yourself at home, all it means is that you’re dying your hair.

先日、美容院で初めてヘアマニキュアをしました。
The other day I got a hair manicure at a beauty salon for the first time.
From: http://www.asyura2.com/0406/health9/msg/142.html

Romance Gray (ロマンスグレー)

Just because your hair has gone gray doesn’t mean you can’t bring on the romance. The George Clooney’s and Sakamoto Ryuichi’s of the world earned their titles as romance grays just by being attractive older men with attractive gray hair.

どん:いくつ上の人までなら付き合えます?
千:自分+15歳くらいですかね。
なお:私、70歳位の人までいけます!
どん:すばらしい!

なお:素敵なロマンスグレーならOKとか(笑)

Don: Up to what age would you be willing to date someone?
Sen: Probably about 15 years older than myself.
Nao: I could do up to about 70!
Don: Wow!

Nao: As long as he’s a fantastic romance gray.
From: http://koigaku.machicon.jp/column/3370/

One Pattern (ワンパターン)

If all your clothes featured the same pattern, that’d get pretty boring and monotonous, right? One Pattern works like an adjective to describe people, places, things, and activities that are as mind-numbing and repetitive as a single pattern.

君の発想はワンパターンだ.
Your ideas are one pattern.
From: Weblio.com’s 研究社 新和英中辞典
居酒屋で飲んで、カラオケか。俺達もワンパターンだな。

Probably drinking at a bar and karaoke. We’re one pattern.
From: Weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

彼とデートしたっていつもワンパターンなんだからあきちゃうのよ.
Going on dates with him (or her) was always one pattern so I lost interest.
From: Weblio.com’s 研究社 新和英中辞典

Ice Candy (アイスキャンディー)

ice-candy-popsicle

This is nothing more and nothing less than a frozen popsicle.

この組み合わせでカップ入りの氷菓やアイスキャンディーも作られている。
This combination is also made as shaved ice and ice candy.
From: Weblio.com’s 日英京都関連文書対訳コーパス

Catch Ball (キャッチボール)

In its humblest form, this word merely stands in for “playing catch.” But from that original adoption it evolved to signify the back-and-forth of an engaged and engaging conversation between people. You can visualize it as tossing a conversational ball back and forth—-active, fun, and invigorating yet comfortable. I think the closest English equivalent would be “developing a repartee,” but alas that’s not even English, it’s French.

キャッチボールをしよう。
Let’s catch ball.
From: Weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

人に好かれる会話術!恋のキャッチボールをするコツ
片方ばかりが話していては気持ちを通い合わせることができなくなってしまいます。会話はキャッチボールできてこそ二人の仲が深まっていくものです。
Techniques for Conversing with the One You Love! Secrets to Romantic Catch-Ball-ing!
It becomes impossible to communicate if only one side is doing all of the talking. It’s precisely when conversations catch ball that the relationship between two people can deepen.
From: http://matome.naver.jp/odai/2137275574419656801

Last Heavy (ラストヘビー)

Essentially this means the final push, the last burst of effort before a task is completed or a goal is achieved.

全国の剣連がラストヘビーをかけて行くことを期待します。
I expect that the All-Nation Kendo Association will go on to make the last heavy.
From: http://www.kendo.or.jp/old/column/2011-01-01.html

Pocket Bell (ポケベル)

pagers

Photo by Hades2k

Remember those ancient devices we called “pagers” in English? The Japanese called them “pocket bell.” The word may become as obsolete as the technology, but I at least would vastly prefer to have a pocket bell over a cell phone.

緊急なら、ポケベルで呼び出せますけど・・・。
If it’s an emergency I can call her with the pocket bell but…
From: Weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

Soft Skills (ソフトスキル)

If someone has soft skills, it means they’re good with people. This is as opposed to “hard skills” like computer engineering.

しかし、キャリアが進んでいくにつれ、ソフトスキルがより重要になる。
However, as your career advances, soft skills become more important.
From: books.google.com

Body Con(scious) (ボディコン)

At first glance, you might assume that this refers to someone who is overly conscious about their appearance. What this adjective actually refers to is clothing that causes OTHER people to become overly conscious of your, ahem, appearance. In other words, it’s used to describe sexually attractive and/or tight-fitting clothing.

マライアキャリーが着ているようなボディコンみたいなワンピースが欲しいんですが…
なかなか見つかりません。どこかそうゆうお店のサイト知っている方教えてください。
I want a body conscious dress like something Mariah Carey wears…but I can’t find one. Please let me know if you know some store website where I can find that sort of thing.
From: http://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail/q1232317557

Paper Driver (ペーパードライバー)

japanese-cat-drivers-license

A driver, but on paper only. In other words, this noun can be used to refer to someone (including yourself) who does in fact possess a driver’s license but drives so rarely and/or so poorly that the license is little more than a scrap piece of paper.

俺、ペーパードライバーだから運転には自信ないんだ。電車でどこかに行こうよ。
Since I’m a paper driver, I don’t have confidence in my driving. So let’s go somewhere by train.
From Weblio.com

Bed Town (ベッドタウン)

A town where a commuting student or worker basically does nothing but sleep for the night, so it’s the town where their bed is but not much else. These areas tend to cluster around big cities like Tokyo and Osaka and such—and it’s not just slang, the other day I heard NHK news even refer to a Tokyo suburb as a bed town.

典型的なベッドタウンで、昼間においても人通りが少ない。
It’s a typical bed town; even in the middle of the day there’s not much pedestrian traffic.
From: Weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

Skinship (スキンシップ)

Physical contact in an intimate relationship.

子供とのスキンシップを大切にしないとね
You need to value skinship with children.
From: Weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

Pair Look (ペアルック)

matching-japanese-people

Photo by Eric Parker

This happens when a pair of people look identical because they’re wearing matching outfits (usually a couple).

今の二人、見た?あのペアルックはちょっとセンスないよね
Did you see those two just now? That pair look is in pretty bad taste, don’t you think?
From: Weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

Virgin Road (バージンロード)

Nope, this doesn’t mean a highway that’s never been driven on before. It’s a colloquialism for the aisle of a church that the bride and groom walk down towards the altar.

教会結婚式は、バージンロードを花嫁が選択するといわれており、その後に教会に行って祈る人は1%もいない
As for church weddings, it’s said that brides choose them for the virgin road, but not even 1% of couples go to pray at the church afterwards.
From: Weblio.com’s Wikipedia日英京都関連文書対訳コーパス

Guts Pose (ガッツポーズ)

This is the triumphant stance that a victorious person assumes after winning a match, vanquishing all of his foes in a battle, or FINALLY beating a video game.

あいつがガッツポーズするなんて、よっぽど嬉しかったんだろうな
That guy must have been extremely happy to strike a guts pose like that.
From: Weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

Shutter Chance (シャッターチャンス)

shutter-chance

Photo by Paul Reynolds

You already know exactly what this is. It’s a way to describe an opportune moment to take a photograph, otherwise known in English as a photo opportunity.

お前が大声出すから、せっかくのシャッターチャンスを逃しちゃったよ
Thanks to your shouting I missed out on a rare shutter chance.
From: Weblio.com’s Tanaka Corpus

Over Doctor (オーバードクター)

While this can refer to over-educated people generally, it particularly connotes a currently unemployed person who also holds a Phd.

日本の企業サイドからすると、文学系のオーバードクターは、どうしてもほしいという人材ではないです。
From the perspective of Japanese companies, an over-doctor of literature is not at all the sort of person they want.
From: http://oshiete.goo.ne.jp/qa/294381.html

30年前この国でオーバードクター(以下OD)問題が社会問題になった。
The over-doctor issue became a social problem in this country thirty years ago.
From: http://d.hatena.ne.jp/akamac/20101211/1292058146

Doctor Stop (ドクターストップ)

This is what happens when a doctor orders you to stop doing something for your general health or for recovery purposes.

今やってるスポーツがドクターストップかけられました。
The sports that I had been playing were doctor stopped.
From: http://oshiete.goo.ne.jp/keyword/%E3%83%89%E3%82%AF%E3%82%BF%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B9%E3%83%88%E3%83%83%E3%83%97

Handle Keeper (ハンドルキーパー)

designated-driver-handle-keeper

Photo by Bridget Coila

Being a handle keeper means being the person who keeps the handle of the car door out of reach of drunken peoples. Otherwise known as a designated driver.

飲み会後、自分がハンドルキーパーだったの忘れてた。
After the drinking party I had forgotten that it was me who was the handle keeper.
From: bokete.jp/boke/8240424

Live House (ライブハウス)

These are locations or venues where live performances, acts, or concerts happen.

全国の都道府県別の名所と呼ばれそうなライブハウスをまとめました!
I’ve collected all of the live houses that appear to be famous in all of the prefectures of the country!
From: matome.naver.jp/odai/2138073462111870501

Baby Hotel (ベビーホテル)

This is not an outlet of the Hilton catering to newborns—it refers to an unlicensed child care facility, which is not nearly as life-threatening as it sounds. The very particular regulations on child care in Japan mean that many sane parents choose to send their children to a baby hotel for a variety of reasonable reasons.

ベビーホテルが急激に増加した。
The number of baby hotels suddenly and radically increased.
From: http://www.nichibenren.or.jp/activity/document/statement/year/1981/1981_7.html

Silver Seat (シルバーシート)

japanese-train-silver-seat

Photo by hitoshi koda

These refer to seats on public transportation that are reserved for the silver-haired (i.e. elderly) population.

ただ、シルバーシートで携帯いじっている健康的な若者の前ではわざと見えるようにしますけどね。
I do it on purpose so that it’s visible right in front of the healthy young people playing around on their cell phones in the silver seats.
From: ameblo.jp/princessizuko/entry-11776109140.html

Charm Point (チャームポイント)

Your charm point is your most charming or attractive feature.

「自分のチャームポイントは目」と思っている女性が一番多いという結果になりました
The result is that the greatest number of women believe that their charm point is their eyes.
From: http://news.mynavi.jp/c_career/level1/yoko/2013/02/post_3188.html

X-Day (Xデー)

An X-Day is a euphemism for a day in the near future when you’re anticipating or expecting a major event to occur.

こうした状況を受け、不動産バブル崩壊のXデーがすぐそこまで来ているとの見方が浮上。
Having taken in that information, a view is surfacing that the X Day when the real estate bubble will burst will soon arrive.
From: http://news.finance.yahoo.co.jp/detail/20140218-00933001-fisf-bus_all

Match Pump (マッチポンプ)

incredibles-syndrome

I can’t even begin to explain how this one came into being. All I can tell you is that it’s a noun used to describe someone who likes to stir up trouble just so that they can be the one to fix it and thereby look like a hero.

あいつはマッチポンプだ.
He’s a match pump.
From: Weblio.com’s 研究社 新和英中辞典

Parasite Single (パラサイトシングル)

If an adult after graduating from college could make a living on his own but would rather not, and so returns to his parents house in order to live rent and board-free, then he or she is a parasite single. As far as I can tell the US is witnessing a similar phenomenon that it’s calling the “boomerang generation.”

低所得の私はパラサイトシングルが羨ましいと思っている
My low-income self is jealous of parasite singles.
From: http://nomenzura.net/archives/227

Pipe Cut (パイプカット)

A vasectomy. ‘Nuff said.

私のパイプカット手術体験記
カチャカチャとパイプカット手術に使う道具を準備している音(ステンレスの皿にメスやピンセットを置くような音)がしています。
A Record of My Experience With Pipe Cut Surgery
There’s a scraping sound as they prepare the tools used for the pipe cut operation (a sound like they’re placing a scalpel and pincers on a stainless steel plate).
From: http://www.pcut-taiken.me/story_html/story_08.html

Why Wasei Eigo?

anpanman

Hopefully the unorthodox glossary I’ve cobbled together here has given you a taste of the many flavors of wasei eigo. A number of linguistic “purists” (both native English-speaking and Japanese) have lodged complaints against wasei eigo as an unsavory corruption of both languages involved. Others reject linguistic “purity” as a myth and further argue that wasei eigo is actually a vitally creative force rather than a destructive one, one that enhances expressive abilities rather than degrades them. From this point of view, wasei eigo gives Japanese speakers a sort of verbal playground where they can experiment with words in order to more fully reveal something or to euphemistically obscure something, to refer to a specific socio-cultural phenomenon or just to make someone laugh. But regardless of whether you think wasei eigo is a blight on or a boon to the Japanese language, by all accounts it is here to stay so we might as well enjoy it.

Did I forget to include your favorite wasei eigo word? Let me know what it is in the comments!

Bonus Wallpapers!

fabiokuma-1280
[1280x800] ∙ [2560x1600]

Sources:

  • “Wasei eigo: English ‘loanwords’ coined in Japan” by Laura Miller
  • “Japanese Communication: Language and Thought in Context” By Senko K. Maynard
  • “Japanese English: The use of English by the Japanese today” By Morito Yoshisa
  • Weblio 英和・和英辞典 (http://ejje.weblio.jp/content/)

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Dealing with Disaster: Three Years After Fukushima http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/22/dealing-with-disaster-three-years-after-fukushima/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/22/dealing-with-disaster-three-years-after-fukushima/#comments Wed, 22 Oct 2014 16:00:59 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=44543 Living in Tokyo, I don’t hear much about Fukushima’s disaster recovery. Three years after the disaster, Tohoku’s recovery only directly affects me through little donation boxes supermarkets and drug stores. The actual situation in Tohoku however is rocky. To find out more, I took a little trip last month to the area to get a firsthand […]

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Living in Tokyo, I don’t hear much about Fukushima’s disaster recovery. Three years after the disaster, Tohoku’s recovery only directly affects me through little donation boxes supermarkets and drug stores.

The actual situation in Tohoku however is rocky. To find out more, I took a little trip last month to the area to get a firsthand view of the so-called “recovery”.

Bear in mind that the 2011 disaster is actually a collection of two disasters affecting different parts of Tohoku. The first is the earthquake and tsunami which has caused damage particularly to the coastal areas of Miyagi, Iwate, and Fukushima. The second is the nuclear meltdown in Fukushima, which had the greatest effect within Fukushima prefecture, resulting in forced evacuation areas due to nuclear radiation.

The first will be addressed in a different post. This article will deal with the second.

During my trip, I stopped over at a city in southeast Fukushima prefecture, Iwaki city, and through it I hope to raise the question: How much has Japan really recovered from the nuclear crisis in Fukushima?

Iwaki, Fukushima

view-from-iwaki-station-fukushima

View of the city from the station.

I myself arrived in Iwaki on a bright Saturday. I was expecting a lively mid-sized city. After all, Iwaki is the largest city in Fukushima prefecture in terms of population. It turns out it’s the largest in size as well and thus the population is spread thin.

Iwaki itself suffered from the earthquake. After Sendai, it had the second largest number of destroyed homes (40,000) and about 400 dead from landslides and the tsunami. While it originally had a direct link to Sendai through the Joban line of JR East, the nuclear radiation exclusion zone cut it in half. Train commuters now must take a long detour through the west using infrequent trains (about once every two hours) through central Fukushima prefecture to head northward.

train-signs-in-iwaki-station-fukushima

Signboard at Mito-station, south of Iwaki. The blanked out part probably says “Sendai”.

You wouldn’t know any of this if you just stumbled into the city by mistake. The area around Iwaki station is tranquil and pristine with many 5 story buildings. Walk 10 minutes away from the station and you’ll arrive at rows of houses with 2 stories with only small signs of urban decay.

Social Friction

temporary-housing-in-iwaki-fukushima

Photo by Daisuke TSUDA

Example of temporary housing for disaster victims.

Iwaki is one of the cities with the highest number of disaster evacuees in the nation. There is temporary housing within 20 minutes’ walk from the station. As of last year, the city was sheltering around 24,000 refugees from the disaster areas. These refugees mainly come from the evacuated area north of Iwaki, which is within the vicinity of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Reactor.

Three years after the disaster, some Iwaki residents feel the refugees have overstayed their welcome. Below I have translated a number of comments from Iwaki netizens on Twitter:

“The people living in the temporary housing are living in luxury. They’re getting money. They’re getting money if they don’t work so some go on overseas holidays or even buy expensive cars. They get rebates at convenience stores so they shop there. The convenience stores are crowded and with the population increasing, traffic congestion is getting worse. Iwaki citizens have no such privileges.”

“Like, the refugee-samas ride and crash expensive cars which they have never tried before and that is why there’s always traffic jams. I just wish they’d stop it! “

“This I can say this without any hesitation. There are some people suffering in the temporary housing but a majority are getting money without working; their children who see the adults not working become dysfunctional hikikomoris living through the internet and become useless people spending their time on Niconico douga”.

This has been reported on by NHK, Huffington Post Japan and Japan Times in English. The major complaints are that the influx of refugees has caused a shortage of doctors, an increase in rent prices, and traffic. Actually it seems that, at least on the internet, all sorts of stuff is being blamed on the disaster survivors.

refugees-go-home-graffiti-iwaki-fukushima

“Disaster Victims get Lost!”

 Things have gotten so bad, that there has even been anti-refugee graffiti, as seen above. This photo was taken in 2012 so you can be sure that the problem has been around for at least two years already. With a large portion of the evacuated municipalities still under quarantine and the slow recovery for those which evacuation orders have been rescinded, tensions are likely to continue mounting.

Fates of the Survivors

abandoned-namie-town-fukushima

Photo by Steve Herman

Namie Town, deserted immediately after the disaster. Even now, staying overnight is forbidden in all areas of the town.

A large number of refugees still can’t go home. A further number can only go back home on day trips. In these areas, staying overnight has been forbidden due to elevated levels of radiation. For some lucky ones, the evacuation orders have been rescinded. But the choice to return home isn’t as obvious or easy as you may think.

Let’s take the example of Kawauchi village, to the immediate north of Iwaki. The eastern part of the village is within 20 km of the Fukushima nuclear reactors. But as of the 25th last month, the majority of the evacuation orders have been rescinded and only a small part of the village is still under quarantine.

Nonetheless, the population has not returned. NHK reported that out of 2758 people registered with the village, only 1476 have returned. The returnees have been mostly elderly – the young have not been returning as willingly.

disaster-worker-clean-up-fukushima

Photo by Roger Jolly

Photo of decontamination works in Kawashima, 2012

NHK explains that there are three main reasons for the lack of young returnees. Firstly, fears about the radiation certainly remain. Secondly, education is a concern. Kawauchi’s high school students tended to commute to high schools in the towns to the east. Those are now ghost towns due to the radioactivity exclusion zone. The alternative has children take one hour bus rides to schools in the west – not very practical for anyone involved.

The third reason is financial. Many people in the area formerly worked in other towns to the East. NHK reports that 500 villagers lost their jobs due to the quarantine. The village is trying to attract new companies to provide jobs. However, it has so far only been able to attract 100 new job, many among these being low-paying, barely above minimum-wage positions. The NHK gives the example of a position in an agricultural factory which only pays 700 yen.

If you found yourself in their position, and had been living somewhere else for perhaps a year, would you choose to return?

Problems with Nuclear Energy

nuclear-reactor-japan-fukushima

Photo by Energy.Gov

Mihama Nuclear Reactor

The debate about Fukushima in the English media revolves around the pro vs. anti nuclear power debate. In Japan, however, where domestic power sources are scarce, another question is being asked: can the
country survive without nuclear power?

You can imagine how this looks. On one hand, energy prices have been sky high since the reactors were shut down and the business world is unhappy. On the other hand, Fukushima stands as a constant reminder of the dangers of nuclear energy. But there is another dimension here: Who exactly is for and against restarting the reactors?

You would think that the residents of towns and villages which host nuclear reactors who oppose the restarting the most. After all, it is them who have the most to lose. However, they also have the most to gain. The construction of nuclear power plants has often been linked with generous aid from electrical companies, and the nuclear power plants themselves do provide something highly in demand to rural Japan – jobs.

fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-reactor

Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant in 1999, 12 years before the accident.

This is why, instead of opposing the restart of the nuclear reactors, cities hosting them actually support it. The opposition comes from neighboring cities and towns who don’t gain as much from the economics of nuclear power but still have much to lose. NHK reports that the percentage supporting the restarting of power plants is above 50% for municipalities with nuclear plants and is clearly weaker in surrounding towns.

At the moment it is only the reactor’s hosting municipality which has to give permission for restart once they are certified “safe” by the authorities. With the government wanting to restart ASAP, Japan’s success in balancing the economic livelihood of people, responsibility, and safety remains to be seen.

Moving Forward

family-in-namie-returning-home

Photo by Steve Herman

Namie Town village returning to their shop in the day, April 2011.

Clearly, Fukushima prefecture has a long way to go. Decontamination is still in progress at a speed which many criticize as unsatisfactory. There is even a question as to whether the areas closest to the reactors will become the Japanese Chernobyl.

Next, we will be looking at the situation in the tsunami disaster areas – which offers a different set of problems. Things are going to be more personal in the next article. Unlike Fukushima, I’ve been able to visit some of the directly affected areas. And it is a very different situation on the ground.

Please do take a look!

Further Reading:

  • Link to synopsis of NHK Mito report.
  • Explanation about the compensation given to municipalities which host nuclear plants.
  • Transcript of NHK online report on the differences in support and opposition towards the restarting of the reactors

Bonus Wallpapers!

fukushima-1280
[1280x800] ∙ [2560x1600]

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Shunga: Japan’s Ancient Erotica http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/21/shunga-japans-ancient-erotica/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/21/shunga-japans-ancient-erotica/#comments Tue, 21 Oct 2014 16:00:34 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=44409 Vending machines selling school girl’s panties?  Grown men reading pornographic comics in public?  Gender segregated train-cars to protect women from gropers? Ear-cleaning parlors with very happy-endings?  With situations like these making headlines, it comes as no surprise that Japan has earned a reputation for perverted culture. My first foray into the world of anime left me with a similar […]

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Vending machines selling school girl’s panties?  Grown men reading pornographic comics in public?  Gender segregated train-cars to protect women from gropers? Ear-cleaning parlors with very happy-endings?  With situations like these making headlines, it comes as no surprise that Japan has earned a reputation for perverted culture.

My first foray into the world of anime left me with a similar impression.  At that time, action, comedy, and even children’s anime vhs tapes shared shelf-space with hentai titles.  I’d feel embarrassed looking past cartoon breasts and butts big enough to make Sir MixALot blush to find what I wanted.  Finally I’d spot Goku throwing a fireball next to a sailor-suited girl being molested by aliens, an R-18 sticker (un)cleverly affixed over her private bits.

Although Japan might get a raw deal when it comes to perversion, it’s not a recent development.  In fact, Japan has a long, rich history of erotic images.  The roots of pornographic manga and anime can be traced all the way back to the Edo era, during the shunga (or erotic woodblock printing) boom.

Recent lifts on shunga bans have opened the floodgates, allowing greater understand of the true meaning, uses, themes, and lasting impact of shunga.  But recent exhibits have refueled an age-old debate – what separates art from obscenity?

What Are Shunga?

the-great-wave-by-hokusai-art

The term shunga (春画) literally translates into “spring picture” but has little to do with the season, describing erotic prints that gained popularity during the Edo era.  Examples of shunga range from subtle adult situations to grossly – in both senses of the word – explicit imagery, and cover an array of subjects and themes.

Although shunga originated during the Heian period (794 to 1192 A.D.), a lack of technology made copying images painstaking and expensive.  As a result only the upper-classes had the luxury of owning pieces of art, shunga or otherwise.

The Edo era (1603 and 1868) saw the advent of woodblock printing which allowed for the mass production of quality images.  Through this technique artists carved images into wooden blocks which were coated with ink and pressed onto paper, leaving a print.   As technology improved, the mass production of images lead to greater availability, lower prices and therefore wider distribution of prints.

woodblock-ready-to-make-print

Photo by: David Monniaux

Chances are you have already seen what many consider the world’s most famous woodblock print in The Great Wave by Hokusai.  It may come as a surprise that such a renowned artist also gained notoriety for pornography. Many famous woodblock artists dabbled in shunga and Hokusai is no exception.

However artists weren’t in search of notoriety. Tim Clark, curator of a shunga exhibition at The British Museum explains, “We can be pretty sure that everybody in Japanese society, from the ruling class down to the ordinary townsperson used and enjoyed shunga.”  High demand for erotic prints meant shunga outsold other genres and artists simply migrated to the most profitable market.

Edo, the capital city at the time, became the shunga boom’s epicenter.  In Masterclass: Understanding Shunga: A Guide to Japanese Erotic Art Majella Munro writes, “No indulgence or pleasure was unavailable within (Edo’s) precincts… from brothels to… huge quantities of porn, guidebooks, and other marketing paraphernalia”(p13).

Of course the images drove shunga’s popularity.  In his book Sex and the Floating World, Timon Screech explains, “Shunga… are rarely stories, and in most instances a page can reasonably stand alone.”  The scarcity of narrative driven shunga suggests plot took low priority on shunga customers’ lists.

Shunga’s Uses

shunga-books-on-display

Photo by: Bruno Cordioli

Why did Edo-era people buy shunga?  In Sex and the Floating World, Timon Screech gives the topic thorough investigation and the reasons range from the logical to the absurd.

Let’s start with the absurd – some shunga owners believed the erotic prints brought good luck.  Warriors carried the prints, convinced they warded off death.  In a sword carrying culture forged in the deadly violence of war, a society that continues to buy protection amulets today (probably of the non-erotic variety, though I’ve never opened one to find out), people tried anything to escape death’s cold grip.

As if that weren’t enough, shunga were also rumored to prevent fires.  Ota Nanpo, one shunga owner wrote, “If you collect these types of book, you will save yourself from destruction by fire” (Screech).  Combustable building materials and the use of fire as a source of heat and light made fires a constant problem in ancient Japan.  In a time predating fire insurance, responsible homeowners bought the next best thing – shunga.

Kunisada-An-Erotic-Guide-to-the-Bedchamber

One logical claim is that some owners used shunga as sexual guidebooks.  Luke Malone of vocative.com explains, “More detailed shunga were often used as sex guides and given as gifts to children from wealthy families.”  The erotic prints made perfect educational gifts for young people unpracticed in the arts of pleasure or old dogs looking to learn new tricks.

However, Screech believes the most common reason behind shunga’s widespread ownership and popularity is also the most obvious – the prints served as a source of self-pleasure.  He writes, “Erotica were intended for those who, as a result of constraints of time or finance, or their ethical stance, were unable to go (to the pleasure districts) often.”

It’s no coincidence that Edo, a “City of Bachelors” became the center of printing during the shunga boom.  Tokugawa law, which separated husbands from their wives and lovers, helped justify and popularize the ownership and use of shunga among both sexes.  Travel was difficult, couples could go months without reuniting.

Shunga helped separated couples pass the time (wink, wink) and provided a cheap and reusable alternative to the expensive red-light districts and pleasure quarters.  Screech writes, “Shunga ownership might be excused as only for interim use until the next authentic bout (of sex).”

Shunga’s Themes

Good Old-Fashioned Love

spring-pasttimes-shunga

Despite what those anime vhs covers of my youth led me to expect, most shunga depict affectionate love-making.  Ruth Styles of Dailymail.co.uk writes, “Most of the images, although explicit, are loving – even tender – and show the pleasure being shared out between men and women in equal measure.”

With Japan’s reputation for perversion, the affection these prints depict may come as a surprise.  Most shunga depict physical love between husbands and wives – or at least consenting adults.  But these tame depictions take a backseat to the striking, memorable impressions left by the less frequent, but more extreme shunga.

Fashion’s Finest

four-seasons-kunisida-shunga

Today’s viewers might assume the throes of passion left little time to undress, as many of shunga’s subjects remain fully clothed.   But at the time, flashy attire flaunted wealth and gained popularity with prostitutes and actors, giving fashion a “sexual power” that made it a shunga staple (Screech).  Japanvisitor.com writes, “It was the fine silks and sumptuous clothes of the geisha that made them the stuff of men’s dreams.”  Partially clothed bodies proved to be more provocative than the fully nude, so most shunga feature partially or even fully clothed subjects.

Homoerotic Over and Undertones

Moronobu-shunga

Heterosexual couples represented the norm in shunga, but they weren’t the rule.  Screech points out that during the Edo period, “‘heterosexual’ and ‘homosexual’ were not fixed, distinct human types, rather they were understood as activities.”

Furthermore, nanshoku, or “traditional male love,” remained an enduring facet of Japanese society and Japan accepted homoerotic themes that would have otherwise been been dismissed as immoral by most Western culture at the time.

Gender Ambiguities

homosexuality-in-japan

Shunga’s art style makes differentiating the sexes no easy task.  “In shunga, male and female bodies appear virtually identical other than the genitals” (Screech).  The differentiation of Shunga’s male and female faces and bodies is made even more difficult by the subjects’ ambiguous, tumbleweed-like bodily entanglements.

The prominence of fashion added to the confusion.  Worn by both sexes, kimonos tended to hide bodily features and add to shunga’s rampant gender ambiguities.

To further complicate matters, cross-dressing actors and prostitutes also made their way into shunga.  Screech points out, “Indeed, Westerners routinely mistook the attractive boys (wakashu) for girls, as do many modern viewers.”

Onstage, adolescent boys played girl’s roles with great feminine effect. As evidence of nanshoku’s popularity, “boy prostitutes of the Edo period commonly dressed as girls” (Screech).  Shunga’s style and the era’s attitudes rendered gender identification in shunga difficult and ultimately unimportant.

The Depiction of Genitalia

Yet shunga provide an easy way (or should it be two easy ways?) to discern gender ambiguities through their depiction of male and female genitalia.  Many shunga feature shocking, at times grotesquely enlarged genitals.

In most cases, neither sex outshined the other – male and female subjects received equal embellishments and exaggerations.

Voyeurism

In what may have been an effort to the lighten guilt of viewers, voyeurism played a major role in shunga.  Most of the scenes took place indoors or surrounded by natural barriers, providing ample cover for naughty onlookers.  Viewers can ogle the images alongside third-parties depicted as men, women, children and even animals.

Screech explains, “By investing in the gaze in some other, non-human or humanoid form, artists could provide a point of entry into the picture for any viewer.”  When enjoying a print, a commoner might identify with the lower class peeping-tom looking in on a upperclass couple.  Conversely, the upperclass couple would identify with the subjects of the action.

Plot and Parody

Suzuki-Harunobu-Sexual-Misconduct-shunga

Although plot-driven shunga collections may have been rare, they did exist.  At times artists depicted or parodied scenes from the era’s popular stories, including The 47 RoninHakkenden: The Dog Warriors and even The Tale of Genji.  Screech cites a poem reacting to the eroticization of Genji:

Even Genji
can be poison
to young minds

Jippensha Ikku’s travel tale, Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige, inspired a whole series of travel prints by legendary woodblock artist Hiroshige in The Fifty-three Stations of the Toukaidou (Screech).  Screech writes, “The entire preface to the book is a series of sexual puns, in this case nanshoku ones.”

Some shunga featured limerick-like poems.  The British Museum’s Tim Clark gives one example from Kitagawa Utamaro’s print Poem of the Pillow:

Its beak caught firmly in the clamshell,
the snipe cannot fly away,
on an autumn evening.

Other shunga featured animal puns, helping to excuse animal voyeurs – some more exotic than others.  Screech describes one exotic case, “Camels were called rakuda, which sounded like the casual expletive ‘raku da!’ (feels comfy).”

Even Enma, the lord of hell becomes a victim of parody.  In Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan, Gary P. Leupp describes one instance where Enma is so moved by a nanshoku painting that, “he immediately falls in love with the image and, in his excitement, tumbles down from his thrown…  The king of hell at once declares his determination to leave the netherworld for Japan, where he will seek out the actor and ‘share his pillow” (87).

Encounters of the Unique Kind

But shunga’s unique encounters didn’t end with camels or King Enma.  Japan’s colorful array of beasts, monsters and youkai also got in on the act.  Screech explains, “Folklore had it that some beasts (including tengu, kappa, even transforming males foxes) kidnapped human males for sexual pleasure.”

Once again Hokusai inked the most famous example in The Dream of the Fisherman’s Wife, a picture depicting a woman making love with two octopuses in what many consider the birth of “tentacle porn.”

Although most early shunga depict consensual encounters, some later examples take a darker tone.  “Actual rape becomes a shunga fetish,” Screech writes, “either by friends and relatives or by burglars and cut-throats.”

Even the human body can morphs and become the aggressor.  “In Kunisada’s use of the homunculus in his New Tale of the Welling Waters of 1827, Beanman must draw his sword to fight off a monster vagina that threatens to engulf him until, quelled, it surrenders to his bidding” (Screech).

Some of shunga’s unique encounters avoided the dark and extraordinary for more inquisitive tones.  The limited number of foreigners in Japan sparked curiosity and inspired some artists to depict non-Japanese subjects.  Ruth Styles explains, “And while most shunga do focus on ordinary Japanese people, the odd Dutch or Portuguese adventurer sometimes creeps in.”

Lasting Influence

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Photo by: Ignis

Have shunga left a lasting legacy?

I think I experienced one aspect of it as an innocent youth at the video shop.  Ancient shunga prove Japan’s interest in pornographic art – be it comics, cartoons or ancient shunga – is nothing new.

Industry giants feel the same way.  Luke Malone writes, “Toshio Maeda (widely considered to be the grandfather of erotic manga)… sees (erotic manga) as the modern iteration of an important cultural tradition (i.e. shunga).”

Calling hentai manga a “remnant” of shunga seems like an appropriate description.  Perhaps today’s tentacle, monster, demon, alien and robot pornography can be traced back to the days of anything-goes erotic prints.  Even Japan’s lolita and wakashu fetishes might find a root in shunga’s younger boy and girl subjects.

But shunga’s legacy need not be limited to extremes.  Most prints celebrated more subdued themes, like loving sex between consenting adults.  And these themes also enjoy continued popularity in Japan’s modern erotica.  They just don’t make headlines.

Perhaps Japan’s modern erotic media – including manga, anime, movies, video games – would not be socially acceptable or even legal today if it weren’t for the path blazed by Edo era shunga.

Obscenity?  Art?  Or Both?

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Beauty is in the eye of the beholder and time has been kind to peoples’ perceptions of shunga. Many of today’s viewers admire the prints as works of art.  Distinguished museums in the west, like The British Museum, have held popular exhibitions celebrating the medium.

Yet shunga continue to be considered obscene in Japan, their country of origin.

The recent arrest of the “vagina artist” Megumi Igarashi has helped stoked the debate – what separates art from obscenity?  Police arrested Ms. Igarashi, also known as Rokudenashi-ko (“A No-Good Girl”), for distributing 3d data for the replication of her vagina for artistic purposes.  The No-Good Girl’s art included a “no-good” kayak modeled after her vagina.

She presented her case at a press conference (video presented by The Japan Times):

I was charged with the crime of distributing obscene data…  The way that this word, ‘obscenity’ has been attached to the vagina makes it seem like some remote, unfamiliar object…  In Japan there is a tradition of festivals that celebrate sexual organs, and yet we also have this notion of obscenity.  I think my arrest was a symptom of this distorted notion of sexuality that exists in this country.

But it wasn’t always that way.  In fact, Western taboos shaped Japan’s attitudes and laws dealing with sex and nudity.  In her essay Shunga in the Meji Era: The End of a Tradtion? Rosina Buckland explains, “From 1872 onwards, the government undertook to regulate and control prostitution more strictly, as part of its project to “civilize” Japan in the view of Western nations.”  Laws banning shunga soon followed.

Despite its reputation for perversion, Japan takes a conservative stance when it comes to sexuality.  And although headline making situations exist, they do not represent the norm.  Tim Clark remarks, “Somehow ironically, (shunga) are more explicit than today’s Japanese pornography laws would allow.”  Strict laws outlaw displaying genitalia in media – a common element of Edo-era shunga.

In all likelihood, few Edo-era people purchased shunga for their artistic value.  During an era devoid of magazines, video, and the internet, shunga represented the equivalent of modern day pornography.  So it’s understandable that Japanese law considered shunga obscene.

Yet if few people question non-erotic woodblock prints’ validity as art, isn’t it hypocritical to treat their erotic counterparts differently?  After all both use the same method of production and depict imagery popular of the time period.

Is Ms. Igarashi’s kayak obscenity or art?  Should she have the right to make it and display it?  Should fans have the right to see it?  Where do we draw the line?  And who has the right to answer these questions, particularly when it comes to policies that affect others?

Perhaps American Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart put it best in the Jacobellis v. Ohio obscenity case when he said, “I know it (obscenity) when I see it.”  Individuals define obscenity by their own opinions and values – there is no clearcut definition.  And as we have seen in the case of shunga, one person’s art may be another person’s obscenity.

But one fact cannot be denied – art or not, shunga hold value as unique cultural artifacts.  And we can learn a lot from these primary sources that offer a peek into Edo era attitudes, interests, people and bedrooms.

One thing’s for sure, I’ll never look at hentai reading commuters on the train the same way again.  I might even sit a little bit closer to them.  They are not perverts, but misunderstood, safety-conscious citizens; heroes willing to tarnish their own images to protect themselves and everyone in the vicinity from fire.

Bonus Wallpapers!

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Sources

 

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The Life Of A Junior High Night School Teacher http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/20/the-life-of-a-junior-high-night-school-teacher/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/20/the-life-of-a-junior-high-night-school-teacher/#comments Mon, 20 Oct 2014 16:00:00 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=42187 Last week, we learned what a junior high night school was and, as I mentioned, today we are going to hear from a teacher of one of those schools. The person I interviewed just started as a junior high night school teacher last April, so she is in the middle of figuring out what this […]

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Last week, we learned what a junior high night school was and, as I mentioned, today we are going to hear from a teacher of one of those schools. The person I interviewed just started as a junior high night school teacher last April, so she is in the middle of figuring out what this job is like. In other words, we can get her fresh impressions of this type of school.

(Please note that at the request of the interviewee, we are keeping this person’s identity a secret.)

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1. What is a public junior high night school?

It’s a public school for those who were not able to complete their compulsory education. Although there are different requirements depending on the location, it’s open to both Japanese and non-Japanese people.

2. How many night schools are in Japan?

36 Schools.

3. Are there any regional features among junior high night schools?

In recent years, the majority of students have been non-Japanese people. Depending on which region of Japan you look at, the ethnic majority in any given school varies greatly. For example, the school I work for is located in Tokyo, near Shibuya. Until 5 years ago, the majority of students were Japanese orphans from China who had returned to Japan, but in the past 2-3 years the number of Nepalese students has been increasing. We currently have 61 students in total and over 20 of them are Nepalese.

The majorities even change from school to school in Tokyo alone. I’ve heard that one of the eight schools in Tokyo has a lot of Brazilian students. Knowledge of these schools often spreads by word of mouth among certain communities, and that seems to explain the increases of certain ethnicities in certain schools. Since the location of our school is very close to Shibuya, teenage students or ones in their early twenties tend to come to our school. It is also known that there are a lot of Korean students in Osaka and a lot of Burakumin students in Nara.

4. What does a night school teacher do?

It’s basically the same as what a daytime schoolteacher does. The only thing that differs from daytime teachers is how to approach the students. Since many of the students can’t understand Japanese very well, we have to be creative with lessons. For example, we often draw illustrations or do charts more than writing. Some teachers also use tablets to search for words in a student’s native languages when they don’t understand during the class.

5. What is the difference between day and night schools?

The duties are the same. The difference is the time of the lessons and students, and their level of Japanese language skill determines which class they’re in. Other than that, it’s basically the same. We have school trips, school lunches, and classroom cleaning time just like ordinary schools do. We have sport festivals including volleyball and basketball tournaments.

The eight junior high night schools in Tokyo compete against each other in those tournaments. One unique eventwe have, since there are so many non-Japanese people, is an “International Foods Exchange Party” where everyone brings their own country’s cuisines. As for school hours, the first class starts at 5:30pm and the last one ends at 9pm. Before the classes begin, we open a self-learning room at around 3pm, so the students who want to study can feel free to come earlier and study. We also have activity clubs set up before and after classes. Depending on the club, it lasts for 30 minutes to an hour a day and they are held 2 to 3 times a week.

6. Do night schoolteachers communicate with daytime schoolteachers?

Although we use the same building, there is an atmosphere as though we teach in different schools. We don’t avoid communicating with each other, but since the school time and curriculum is completely different, we don’t communicate very often. It’s difficult to work at both daytime and night schools, so we just do our own jobs. Perhaps we would talk more if some event was held that encouraged communication, but nobody has really found it necessary.

I work as the volleyball coach for the daytime school students, but I prepare for classes on weekdays so I can only attend their games on weekends. There is a fulltime coach from the daytime school, as well. I just help out. Since it would often take up your weekends, not many night school teachers get involved in such things either.

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7. What subjects do you teach?

Math and Japanese. In our junior high night school, the proficiency level of each student determines which classroom they are placed in. The lowest level classroom presents grade one content, such as doing addition on a piece of paper, learning words, kanji, and reading comprehension of grade 1 level material. The highest-level class presents content typical of the third year of junior high school.

I teach grade 2 Japanese and third year junior high math. What I just described was for regular curriculum classrooms. In my school, there are Japanese classes for non-Japanese people outside of just the classes following a regular curriculum. Since such classes are for those who barely understand any Japanese at all, the curriculum focuses on Japanese as a second language and it includes practical activities, such as physical education, home economics, and art. Only students in a regular curriculum classrooms learn math, science, or social studies.

8. What are your typical hours?

Even though classes are held from 5:30pm to 9:30pm, I work from 1pm to 9:30pm.

9. What’s the best thing about being a night school teacher?

Each classroom only has 3 to 10 students. Since they are small classrooms, the time and focus that a teacher can direct towards any one student is much larger. The ages of the students are also close to mine, so we are all friendly. Students often speak to teachers in a positive and polite way. There are also older students, as well as multinational students, so teachers are often able to learn a lot from them and about their respective countries. We can learn what it is really like to live in other countries and not just from what is reported in the news. I got more interested in the world outside of Japan after working here.

10. What’s the worst thing about being a night school teacher?

It is very difficult to convey to students the nuance of things that are uniquely Japanese. Particles and onomatopoeia are particularly tough. For example, there was a sentence “ツルツルして滑りやすい。(tsurutsurushite suberiyasui)” and my student asked me what “tsurutsuru” meant. I explained that it is onomatopoeia for “slippery” or “smooth”, but that suberiyasui also means slippery. For those who don’t understand both Japanese and English, it was very difficult for me to explain. Also, there are so many cultural differences that it’s not only difficult to teach the Japanese language, but also our mindset, our conduct and our manners. Those things are very difficult for me. The worst thing is, however, that there are many students who cannot attend due to their jobs or their family problems, and most of them withdraw from school. There are also some students who cannot really be involved with events or activities outside of usual classes and I think that is a shame.

11. What’s the funniest story you have from being a night school teacher?

On June 8, there was a volleyball tournament among the eight junior high night schools in Tokyo, and our school won. It was really fun for all of them and I was so happy for my students. We practiced three times a week after night school on top of the 3 days of special practice before the tournament. Both students and teachers had been practicing so hard so they could win, so we were very happy to get the result we did. Students who didn’t play in the game did a really good job of cheering for our team too. They were such exciting games. When the other school took the first set, the teams’ mood went way down, but all the teachers and students only cheered louder and they were able to get their minds right again. When we won, students were doing the victory dance and I thought it was a very international show of a good emotion because Japanese students don’t usually dance. Anyways, getting that win was a really good moment that shows what can happen when we all come together and work towards the same goal.

12. I imagine being a night school teacher gives you some free time during the day. What do you do during the day?

Just ordinary private errands. I don’t do anything specific. My workday is 8 hours long, so I basically have the same free time as the other people working in offices.

13. What do you think are the best aspects of the Japanese education system?

I think Japanese education is very tolerant. It’s certainly fantastic that we are this devoted to and enthusiastic about the education of non-Japanese people.

14. What are the worst things about the Japanese education system?

I haven’t found any, yet.

15. Why are kids going to school at night instead of during the day?

It’s not their choice. Our students are people who can’t meet the requirements of daytime school, so they just come to night school instead.

They are Japanese people who couldn’t complete their junior high school education for some reason. The reasons are various. Some couldn’t go due to illness, or their parents didn’t let them go to school. We have a student whose parents didn’t let them go to school, and he tried to work after their death, but couldn’t find a job because he had no education. Then he came to night school. Others stop going to school because they’re being bullied, or because of their parents’ death. There is also a student who was raised in a religious group and had never been enrolled in Japanese compulsory education, but then he came to night school after he became an adult.

Non-Japanese students have various reasons too. Some of them had to move to several new countries due to their parent’s job and couldn’t finish the junior high school education in their own country. Others just grew up in a country that didn’t have a proper educational system. Some students actually came to Japan when they were under the age of 15 and went to daytime school for a while, but they couldn’t get along with people or make any friends, or they gave up studying there because they didn’t understand Japanese very well. Later on, they decided to come to night school to complete their compulsory education.

nightschool-03

16. Who are your students?

In my current class I teach one person from Bangladesh, one from Thailand, one from the Philippines, and one from Nepal. Four of them are teenagers and one is in his 40’s.

17. Why are international students increasing?

The rapprochement reached between Japan and China in 1972 increased the number of Japanese orphans in China returning to Japan, and they and their families became the majority of students. Since the late 1970’s, Indo-Chinese refugees increased. Since the 1990’s, non-Japanese people increased in Japan as a result of people’s jobs, or due to the increase in international marriage, and their kids and family members started coming to night school. After that, there was a time when Afghan refugees increased as well.

When times change, as reflected by international situations and the internationalization of Japan, the students have gradually changed along with them.

18. Can you tell us about a student you’ve helped a lot?

I’ve just started this job, so I haven’t had any specific student yet.

19. Are there any specific problems that international students have?

They are uncertain of their likelihood of staying in Japan. (If they are not sure how long they can stay in Japan, it can discourage them from studying.)

20. Is there anything else you want to say about your job?

While teaching non-Japanese students, I’ve learned that foreign workers have helped Japan a lot. We don’t just pay them for the work they do. They are supporting Japanese society. With the rapid decline of the birthrate, we have to treat such workers really well. I think Japan will come to rely on foreign workers more and more in the future. Therefore, offering education to non-Japanese people who play an important role as citizens in Japan, teaching them not only general knowledge but also Japanese manners and conduct, is very important too, I think.

Night school was originally aimed at Japanese people who could not study because of the war, but now most of the students are non-Japanese people. In our school, only 4 students are Japanese. Our students are as varied as their historical backgrounds. I think it is essential to offer a great education to non-Japanese people right now because if they learn a lot at our night school and enjoy themselves while doing it, they might come to think really fondly of Japan and then one day repay Japan for its kindness. They might work hard for Japan, or they might become a great bridge between Japan and their own countries. Right now, my students all like Japan. Being kind to each other – It is in this way, I believe we can foster great international relationships.

Bonus Wallpapers!

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Japanese Legal Loopholes: How Japan Looks Innocent While Breaking the Law http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/16/japanese-legal-loopholes-how-japan-looks-innocent-while-breaking-the-law/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/16/japanese-legal-loopholes-how-japan-looks-innocent-while-breaking-the-law/#comments Thu, 16 Oct 2014 16:00:37 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=42849 One of the big questions I asked myself while in Japan was “why?” Just “why.” Not the usual, little “why’s” that accompany a trip to a foreign nation like, “why are squatty potties so hard to use?” Rather, I couldn’t help being bombarded by bigger, more legalistic “why’s.” Why in a country where prostitution was […]

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One of the big questions I asked myself while in Japan was “why?” Just “why.” Not the usual, little “why’s” that accompany a trip to a foreign nation like, “why are squatty potties so hard to use?” Rather, I couldn’t help being bombarded by bigger, more legalistic “why’s.” Why in a country where prostitution was illegal did I see signs and brochures for places like the “Love Action Club,” with catalogs of girls to choose from and a probably-quite-sketchy number you could call? Why, in a country where underage drinking is outlawed, are you almost never asked to verify your age?

It seemed to me that several laws in Japan are only very loosely enforced. I started to think that maybe Japan was posturingshowing the world that these laws existed and meeting the standards expected of them on the world stagebut to the native (and sometimes foreigners) there are pretty obvious areas where these laws are simply not enforced. Many governments, and Japan in particular, have a system in place for following their rules to the letter of the law, but will abuse specific wording or create exceptions to allow certain behaviors to slip through the cracks unchallenged. These loopholes seem to inform quite a few areas of Japanese life, so I wanted to dive into a few of the different types of loopholes and attempt to analyze the “why” of it all.

Types of Loopholes

uzumaki-manga

It’s probably too ambitious to attempt to look at all the myriad ways any one government may attempt to skirt laws, so I’m just going to point out some of the major ones in some of the most widely noticeable categories. If any of you fine, upstanding, Tofugu-loving folks would post other observed loopholes or personal anecdotes in the comments, that would be a great way to increase our understanding. That said, this is what I found:

Alcohol Loopholes

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To understand that a double-standard exists with Japan’s enforcement of alcohol, one must compare it to their handling of another controlled substance, firearms. Gun control is so heavily monitored and enforced in Japan that it is almost baffling to a Westerner, especially when compared to the culturally more lax attitude to alcohol and tobacco. We can see that these cultural differences really do inform regulation: So in the United States, whose Constitution contains a “Right to Bear Arms,” firearm control is deemphasized. In Japanese culture, which stresses the importance of drinking between coworkers to seal business deals and foster bonds, it follows naturally that drinking laws would be similarly deemphasized. In Japan, where herds of salarymen stumble home each night, a law that penalizes people for being drunk in public would simply not work as it may in other societies. These are not yet loopholes, however. These are cultural differences in the creation of laws. The loopholes arise when dealing with a consequence of these cultural differences: underage drinking.

To quote a very relevant 2013 article by Koichi (go read it!), “the Japanese underage drinking law came into affect in 1922. It has been ignored ever since.” In 1922, when faced with the evidence that underage drinking was hazardous and being newly opened up to a global stage that had already made that behavior illegal (and, shoot, the U.S. was even in the middle of an outright alcohol prohibition), Japan caved to the pressure and implemented a similar law of their own. However, it wasn’t long before the Japanese underage drinking law became so unenforced that it really only existed on paper and not in practice. The Japanese law as written did not put any restrictions or penalties in place for vendors, machine or otherwise, that sold to underage persons. Nothing really changed.

Whaling Loopholes

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Japan’s loophole with whaling is the only loophole on this list that circumvents international law and as such has been heavily criticized by the global community. To understand why, we need to discuss the history of the law that Japan is evading: the International Whaling Commission’s 1982 moratorium on commercial whaling. Around the late 1970s, the anti-whaling movement was beginning to pick up steam around the world. Eventually these pressures bubbled into an international treaty that set out to ban all whaling, only allowing two exemptions: scientific whaling done for research, and aboriginal-subsistence whaling (for Inuits or other native groups that wouldn’t be able to adequately meet their food needs without the traditional food source). With whaling being an important part of native food and culture in Japan, there was a desire domestically to fight this legislation. Japan, along with Norway, Peru, and Russia (other countries with a significant degree of commercial whaling) launched formal objections to the moratorium. It wasn’t until the US threatened to reduce the Japanese fishing quota within American waters that Japan accepted the moratorium. In 1988, when the US reduced the Japanese fishing quota anyway (sort of a dick move), the Japanese were left to decide what to do in response. It was around this time they opted to employ something they had begun to get very good at usingloopholes.

The Japanese government started issuing ‘Scientific Whaling Permits’ left and right to allow their whaling to be carried out under the guise of lethal scientific research so that they could still meet the provisions of the moratorium. However, the way the whaling was handled did not significantly differentiate it from earlier commercial whaling practices; the meat is still sold to certain fishmongers and finds itself in classy Japanese restaurants after the “research” is conducted. Even in the cases where actual research is carried out, it is not often published in reputable scientific journals and would usually be a more feasible experiment if tagging and catch-and-release strategies were conducted instead of lethal harvesting. Not only that, but the research results typically revolve around how to increase the efficiency of whaling or to convince the global community to remove the moratorium. Seems legit.

Gambling Loopholes

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Betting on casino games, slot machines, mobile games, sports, and any other form of gambling with direct cash winnings is outlawed by chapter 23 of Japan’s criminal code. However, the law specifically builds in a handful of exceptions in order for some money to be made in the ridiculously lucrative gambling industry. For example, betting on horse races and certain motor sports is specifically exempted by the law. Additionally, prefectures and big cities can still sell lottery tickets and hold a variety of lottery events with direct cash payments without violating the law. However, for the most part this law is upheld to the letter. Yeah, that’s right, gambling is actually illegal in Japan. I guess that explains the absence of traditional casinos (for now). But still you wouldn’t think of gambling as illegal when looking at the prevalence of pachinko parlors. Surely, pachinko counts as a form of gambling, right? Not according to Japanese law, and trust me it has taken a fair amount of time and finagling for pachinko to reach the loophole-filled status that it currently enjoys.

Owning and operating a pachinko parlor isn’t illegal. Like the aforementioned horse racing, it has been specifically exempted by the law for significant cultural and historical purposes. The only thing that would make it illegal would be if there were direct cash payouts on site, and that’s exactly how pachinko proprietors skirt this law. At the parlors themselves, people will pay to sit down and play pachinko and their winnings are given to them in the form of gold tokens, metal balls, or something else innocuous. At the parlors, there are prize counters that contain all kinds of kitschy prizes like rice cookers, jewelry, handbags, chocolates, cigarettes, TVs, DVD players, etc. At first glance, the whole system just looks like a glorified version Chuck E. Cheese. The appeal is that you can simply exchange your winnings for a receipt at the prize counter instead of an awkward prize. You can then take that receipt to a winnings desk outside of the premises and turn it in for cash. These exchange stations are usually right next door and owned and operated by the same people as the pachinko parlor. Yet, because they didn’t give you a direct cash payout on site, and you actually had to walk a couple feet, there is zero infraction in the eyes of the law. Everyone involved in pachinko, including law enforcement, parlor employees, and most players are aware of exactly how this system works and how it skirts the laws. But they acknowledge that it’s basically just a legal way to gamble while following Japanese penal code.

Prostitution Loopholes

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Considering the tradition of mizuage among geisha, sexuality has played a major role in Japanese society. Prostitution in Japan was even a state-sponsored activity, with the government licensing and monitoring brothels until 1946 when this practice was banned. After the ban, prostitutes were no longer given guaranteed national contracts, but prostitution was still legal and widely practiced. Many brothels would use cafes or other legitimate businesses as fronts. Pressures from the domestic lobbying group, “The National Federation of the Brothel Trade,” which offered money and free brothel trips to politicians, made it very difficult for reform to reach the Japanese sex trade. It wasn’t until twelve years later in 1958 that the Anti-Prostitution Law was passed and actively enforced. With prostitution outlawed, it took many creative loopholes to keep brothels in operation.

The specific language of the Anti-Prostitution Law only forbids “vaginal sex in exchange for money”, which renders other sex acts permissible. Two of the most common modern variations on Japan’s brothels are fashion health (ファッションヘルス) facilities and soaplands (ソープランド). Fashion Health centers are typically advertised as massage parlors, but they offer much more than just massages. As a matter of fact, the only thing they can’t offer is vaginal sexual intercourse. In this case, the letter of the law is upheld.

Soaplands are merely advertised as locations where patrons will be bathed by partners of their choice. However, they offer much of the same services as brothels. In fact, they can often go a bit further and circumvent the prostitution law for their clients. This is where the most elaborate exploitation of a loophole can be seen. The specific wording of the law forbids only, “intercourse with an unspecified person in exchange for payment.” The key word here being: “unspecified.” Many soaplands, and a handful of other sexual services, have been able to operate legally in Japan by making the claim that the sexual act is being exchanged between people who have become acquainted and are no longer “unspecified”.

“Is it nonsense to deem that the couple fell in love while massaging at a soapland? Yes. But that is how things have operated inside the Japanese legal framework for over five decades,” says Kansai University professor Yoshikazu Nagai, who has extensively studied the modern Japanese sex industry.

These industries are well-regulated in Japan, they must report to police to register as one of the following designations: soaplands, fashion health massage parlors, call-girl businesses, strip clubs, love hotels, and adult shops, and are legally bound to only operate in the capacity of the category they choose. However, that doesn’t stop many of these industries from abusing the wording of the legislation which makes it impossible to criminalize these forms of prostitution. The semantic arguments have become so institutionalized that prostitution in many cases is essentially legal.

Child Pornography Loopholes

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Okay, here it is: we’re going to get a little heavy here. There’s no doubt that Japan really values the aesthetic of cuteness and that this naturally translates to the aesthetic of youth (It’s also a bit of a chicken/egg situation). In Japan, youth is beauty. This is why foreign models chosen to represent Japanese companies often need to fit a certain standard of youthful beauty that requires them to be between the ages of 13 to 16. It’s the reason yaeba teeth are popular, and it is the reason that the lolicon genre and fandom exist. For the unaware, lolicon is typically defined as “discourse or media in Japan focusing on the attraction to young or prepubescent girls.” We’ll add that this type of media is typically in the form of drawn or animated depictions of sexualized prepubescent girls as real-life depictions may violate Article 7 of the Japanese constitution that criminalizes the production of child pornography that was ratified in 1999 (They dragged their feet on that one). In Japan, possession and production of explicitly sexual cartoon lolicon is legal, although still contentious. It’s legal in Japan. No loopholes there. However, it gets a little blurrier when discussing non-simulated child pornography.

After 1999 child pornography was outlawed, but only on the following grounds, “production, transport, import and export, as well as possession of child pornography for the aforementioned purposes.” It became illegal to make and sell child pornography internationally. However, there were absolutely no consequences to those that owned it. None. They had simply to prove that they owned it for personal reasons and had no intention to produce, transport, import, or export it, and the law couldn’t touch them. It wasn’t until Wednesday, June 18th, of the year 2014 (I’m not even kidding) that Japanese lawmakers bowed to international pressures and passed a law making the mere possession of child pornography a crime that could result in a year in jail or an up to $10,000 fine. This, of course, left lolicon depictions untouched as they are considered important both economically and for freedom of expression. Has Japan finally moved closer to the international standard for regulating child pornography? The law provides Japanese citizens a year to dispose of any child pornography they possess before risking any prosecution. In this age of technological mass communication and information duplication, that is a pretty lenient loophole. It’s as if Japan doesn’t really want to prosecute child pornographers, instead providing a gentle slap on the wrist and saying, “Hey, you might want to get rid of that.”

Another blatant loophole that continues to blur enforcement of this law is media featuring Japanese junior idols, child models that usually start between the ages of 13 and 15. While the above types of child pornography are largely distributed in hushed tones and on the dark corners of the internet, junior idol magazines, photo books, and videos, can be purchased in legitimate storefronts across Japan. When I was in Osaka, I saw a shelf full of junior idol DVDs, mostly suggestive swimsuit modeling, that was literally across the aisle from shelves of hardcore hentai and sex toys. It’s extremely hard to imagine that those DVDs were being sold for an artistic purpose and not a pornographic one. There have been prosecutions of production companies whose junior models have crossed the vaguely defined line between child modeling and child pornography, resulting in several videos being removed from Amazon.jp’s online store. This is a start, but it hasn’t even slowed down the multimillion dollar junior idol industry.

About That “Why” Question

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Now that I’ve brought up this diverse list of loopholes in the Japanese government, you, dear reader, should have a few “why’s” in your mind as well. Many of the questions raised by this pattern of loophole flouting in Japanese politics do not have easy answers. Some have argued that the loopholes are exploited by the Japanese public and it is the ineffectiveness of the Japanese government’s enforcement of laws that allows loopholes to thrive. However, Japanese law enforcement seems to institutionalize and actively allow many of these loopholes, so I think differently. I speculate that one of the main reasons for this abundance of loopholes isn’t ineffective enforcement or even political corruption (though parts of it can certainly seem symptomatic). It seems to me that what Japan is really after is preservation of the status quo.

From whaling, to prostitution , to a lax drinking culture, to pachinko parlors, to retaining the legality of lolicon, the exceptions are typically made simply to maintain things as they have always been. In fact, it is my belief that many of the laws that these loopholes circumvent would not have been ratified if it weren’t for the intense pressure from the global community. Japan wants to appear as if it is matching expectations of behavior and etiquette with the Western world, while still enjoying certain behaviors that, while deemed inappropriate elsewhere, are considered core to the Japanese way of life.

These loopholes in laws serve a very similar role domestically. Instead of appeasing the moral sensibilities of those overseas, these laws can also appease Japanese citizens by assuring them that legislation has been passed that will protect them from problems like prostitution and underage drinking, when in reality nothing is truly being enforced. For instance, take this short anecdote from fellow Tofugu writer, Verity Lane:

“the prefecture knew that teachers were working too many hours, and they were being criticized. So they shortened the day by 10 minutes. The previous start time was 8:00. Now it’s 8:10. However, the schools didn’t change the time of the morning meeting (at 8:10) so teachers have to be in school by 8:00 anyway. Nothing changed, but there’s some proof that the prefecture ‘did something’ if anyone criticizes them about working hours again.”

This is a simple example, but it is very telling because it supports this observable pattern of many Japanese regulations making changes on paper, but not truly enforcing them, or else building in exemptions that render the law meaningless. It isn’t my purpose to deem whether these actions are ethical or unethical, but merely to bring this interesting idea to the forefront. I really look foreword to hearing the discussions and comments that this article will elicit. Have you observed these patterns in Japanese society? Where do you see other loopholes? And, let us not forget, why?

Bonus Wallpapers!

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Sources:

  • http://www.icap.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=tMW8of1JAgU%3D&tabid=199
  • http://www.cgeorgemuller.com/summary.htm
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whaling_in_Japan
  • http://www.bbc.com/travel/feature/20120815-the-big-business-of-japans-pachinko-parlours
  • http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/consumer-electronics/gaming/the-secret-life-of-pachinko
  • http://neojaponisme.com/2008/11/17/why-japan-needed-prostitution/
  • http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2008/05/27/reference/law-bends-over-backward-to-allow-fuzoku/#.VCmnn8uM2Ul
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akasen
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostitution_in_Japan
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junior_idol
  • http://www.cnn.com/2014/06/17/world/asia/japan-child-porn-law/index.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_pornography_laws_in_Japan

 

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How to Spice up Your ALT Lessons with the Nine Intelligences! http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/06/how-to-spice-up-your-alt-lessons-with-the-nine-intelligences/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/06/how-to-spice-up-your-alt-lessons-with-the-nine-intelligences/#comments Mon, 06 Oct 2014 16:00:24 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=43714 The Nine Intelligences: by itself the term sounds like an elite spy group or a color-coded hero team. “Gentlemen, we’re clearly in over our heads.  The world is in danger.  Only The Nine Intelligences can save us now!” Although the nine intelligences aren’t a super hero team, they saved me on countless occasions – only under totally different circumstances.  Boring […]

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The Nine Intelligences: by itself the term sounds like an elite spy group or a color-coded hero team.

“Gentlemen, we’re clearly in over our heads.  The world is in danger.  Only The Nine Intelligences can save us now!”

Although the nine intelligences aren’t a super hero team, they saved me on countless occasions – only under totally different circumstances.  Boring textbook have you cornered?  Give them a call!  No ideas on how to teach a topic?  They can lend a hand!

Like a secret weapon, I call upon this educational theory in times of trouble. When my mind goes blank, the creativity well runs dry and lesson plan ideas are few and far between.

Although originally intended to quantify learning styles and help all students find success in the classroom, the nine intelligences - part of Multiple Intelligence Theory - can also be used to add variety to lesson plans.  And since the the theory can be applied to any age group, in any subject – all teachers, regardless of their situations, can benefit from using it.

History

broken-pencil-test-nine-intelligences

Photo by: Josh Davis

The real hero, Harvard professor Howard Gardner, formulated Multiple Intelligence Theory in the 1970s and published his findings in the groundbreaking book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences in 1983.   And he hasn’t looked back since, defending and refining his theory to this day.

According to Mr. Gardner, Multiple Intelligence Theory started as a response to the introduction of IQ tests, uniform curriculums, and other “one dimensional” educational practices – particularly those that aimed to gauge intelligence.  Mr. Gardner writes:

Some years ago it occurred to me that this supposed rational (of a single, quantifiable intelligence) was completely unfair.  The uniform school picks out and is addressed to a certain kind of mind…  But to the extent that your mind works differently… school is certainly not fair to you (5).

Gardner contends that since individuals’ strengths and weaknesses vary, everyone thinks and learns differently.  As a result, uniform tests and curriculums fail to accurately measure a student’s true intelligence and capabilities.  He implored his readers:

Let your thoughts run freely over the capabilities of human beings…  Your mind may turn to a brilliant chess player, the world-class violinist, and the champion athlete… Are the chess player, violinist, and athlete ‘intelligent’ in these pursuits?  If they are, then why do our tests of ‘intelligence’ fail to identify them?… What allows them to achieve such astounding feats?  In general, why does the contemporary construct of intelligence fail to take into account large areas of human endeavor? (6).

Gardner challenged contemporary ideas of intelligence by considering successful, evidently intelligent people that scored low on the tests – or more accurately, that the tests had failed to recognize.  He contended that  people were intelligent in different ways, ways the tests and “uniform schools” failed to evaluate or perceive.

I believe that human cognitive competence is better described in terms of set abilities, talents, or mental skills, which I call intelligences.  All normal individuals possess each of these skills to some extent; individuals differ in the degree of skill and in the nature of their combination. (6)

Gardner quantified these intelligences in multiple intelligence theory.  Although Gardner’s original theory featured only seven intelligences, he later expanded the count to nine.  As an ever evolving theory, Gardner contends that if discovered, more intelligences can be added.

Without Further Ado: The Nine Intelligences

the-nine-intelligences-chart-wheel-of-knowledge

Photo by: Linda Hartley

Gardner’s original seven intelligences included visual-spatial, body-kinesthetic, musical, intra-personal, interpersonal, linguistic, and logical-mathematical categories.  Years later he added naturalist and existential intelligences to make a total of nine intelligences.  Multiple intelligence theory devotee Dr. Thomas Armstrong provides a concise summary of the nine intelligences, which I have streamlined for this article, in his book, “Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom.”

Visual-Spacial Intelligence: the ability to think in three dimensions, graphic and artistic skills, and an active imagination. Sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters, and architects all exhibit spatial intelligence. Young adults with this kind of intelligence may be fascinated with mazes or jigsaw puzzles, or spend free time drawing.

Body-Kinesthetic Intelligence: the capacity to manipulate objects and use a variety of physical skills. This intelligence also involves a sense of timing and the perfection of skills through mind–body union. Athletes, dancers, surgeons, and craftspeople exhibit well-developed bodily kinesthetic intelligence.

Musical Intelligence: the capacity to discern pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tone. This intelligence enables us to recognize, create, reproduce, and reflect on music. Interestingly, mathematical and musical intelligences may share common thinking processes. Young adults with this kind of intelligence are usually singing or drumming to themselves.

Interpersonal Intelligence: the ability to understand and interact effectively with others. It involves communication, sensitivity to the moods and temperaments of others, and the ability to entertain multiple perspectives. Teachers, social workers, and politicians exhibit interpersonal intelligence. Young adults with this kind of intelligence are leaders among their peers, are good at communicating, and understand others’ feelings and motives.

Intrapersonal Intelligence: the capacity to understand oneself and one’s thoughts and feelings. Intra-personal intelligence involves not only an appreciation of the self, but also of the human condition. It is evident in psychologist, spiritual leaders, and philosophers. These young adults may be shy but aware of their own feelings and are self-motivated.

Linguistic Intelligence: the ability to use language to express complex meanings. Linguistic intelligence allows us to understand the order and meaning of words and to reflect on our use of language. It’s the most widely shared human competence and is evident in poets, novelists, journalists, and effective public speakers. Young adults with this kind of intelligence enjoy writing, reading, telling stories or doing crossword puzzles.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: the ability to calculate, consider propositions and hypotheses, and carry out complete mathematical operations. It enables us to perceive relationships and connections and to use abstract, symbolic thought and sequential reasoning skills. This intelligence is important for mathematicians, scientists, and detectives. Young adults with logical intelligence are interested in patterns, categories, arithmetic problems, strategy games and experiments.

Naturalist Intelligence: the ability to discriminate among living things as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world. This ability lends itself to botanists and chefs,but is also speculated that much of our consumer society exploits the naturalist intelligences.

Existential Intelligence: the ninth and final intelligence (not pictured in the chart above) regards sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here.  This intelligence also concerns cultures and religions.  This intelligence might be attributed to philosophers, theologians and life coaches.” (6-7)

Multiple intelligence theory asserts that individuals possess “the full range of intelligences” but no two people share the same “intellectual profile,” or mix of skills in each category, which is shaped by both genetics and life experience.

Furthermore, possession of an intelligence does not guarantee its use.  In fact, thanks to uniform testing and curriculums, some individuals may never discover their intellectual strengths – which makes incorporating Multiple Intelligence Theory into the classroom all the more important.

The Secret Spice

secret-spice-nine-intelligences

Inherently positive and empowering, multiple intelligence theory believes all students can succeed.  Instead of molding students to a curriculum or test, the theory encourages students to explore, learn about themselves and take advantage of their individual strengths, talents and interests.

By incorporating the theory into lessons, educators acknowledge and activate intelligences, providing students with opportunities to discover their own strengths and talents.

Once students recognize their strengths and weaknesses, they can take responsibility in their own learning – taking advantage of their strengths while improving weaknesses.  The first taste of success gives lifelong “failures” invaluable and refreshing confidence, leading to increased motivation and (in theory) more success.

Although multiple intelligence theory benefits students, it also makes teacher’s lives easier, acting as a simple, convenient tool for adding variety to a lesson.  And I find it especially useful in the English classroom as an ALT in Japan.  With so much to gain, educators should call upon the nine intelligences whenever necessary!

And there’s no situation more necessary than lesson planning.   Dull lessons act as classroom kryptonite, stripping students of their will to learn, sucking away everyone’s energy, and destroying any chance of a positive atmosphere.  Multiple intelligence theory became my secret spice, the flavor that added extra zing to my lesson plans.  Whether applied to lessons created from scratch or those based on a textbook, Gardner’s theory always helps to mix things up.

Classroom Examples

nine-intelligences-in-ALT-teaching

During my time as a high school teacher I taped a list of the nine intelligences to my desk.  Always a glance away, they became impossible to forget.  When my mind went blank I knew where to look. Like the magic eight-ball, the list held an answer.

At times a lesson topic and intelligence would mesh perfectly.  Other times combining intelligences and topics would be a fun, creative challenge.  Creating warm-ups and activities to go along with textbook topics had been difficult, but The Nine Intelligences changed that.  Here are some examples.

The musical intelligence sparked the use of Bill Haley’s song Rock Around the Clock to introduce time – afterwards students had no trouble remembering the term o’clock.

In honor of Halloween, the naturalist intelligence inspired pumpkin carving which also sparked the visual-spatial thinkers’ artistic abilities.  Students reviewed face words and experienced another culture first hand.  A week later we displayed their work at the school culture festival.

The body-kinesthetic intelligence made boring activities into fun games by adding movement.  In one case, student pairs had match questions and answers.  To make the activity more interesting I posted the sentences on the classroom walls.  Students walked around the classroom, reading and remembering the questions and answers. Back at their desks they wrote down and then matched the questions with the corresponding answers.

In reading class I simplified a fable’s dialogue and students activated linguistic and body-kinesthetic intelligences by performing the story in the classroom.  The performance assured they understood the story’s content, something that was later proven when they took a test on the unit.

I incorporated existential intelligence into a cultural lesson about the Amish societies of the United States.  Students not only contemplated different religious beliefs but the reasoning, challenges and consequences of lifestyle choices.

In elementary school I incorporated the logical-mathematical intelligence into a dice game.  Two students faced off, each casting a giant die.  The first to add up the rolled numbers and say the answer in English would earn the team a point.

In kindergarten we played a game that activated interpersonal intelligence.  First we chose a category. In this case, we chose fruit.  Next, with students unable to see my paper, I wrote down four types of fruit in English.  Student teams then chose four fruit, hoping to match my choices.  Each correct match earned one point.  Students not only considered what choices I would make (“Sensei said he likes strawberries, maybe he’ll choose that!”), but had to cooperate with group members when making their choices.

As time passed, incorporating different intelligences into lessons became natural.  Variety within a single lesson is just as important as variety between separate lesson plans.  I added opportunities for music, art and movement – venues for learning I had neglected.  I started integrating multiple  intelligences, using one for a warm-up activity, a different one for main activity and then another for the conclusion.

The lessons surprised students with their variety and originality.  The lessons surprised me because they worked.  Multiple intelligence theory became my secret spice – the heroes that made adding that variety to lessons (almost) as simple as glancing at a list.

Value In The Face of Criticism

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Photo by: John F. Williams

Every hero team has an adversary or rival. In the nine intelligence’s case, it’s The General Intelligence Factor or Spearman’s g.  Dating back to the early 1900’s, Charles Spearman sought a universal way to measure intelligence.  His studies eventually spawned IQ tests which sowed the seeds of standardized testing and unified curriculums.  Spearman concluded that with proper testing, anyone’s intelligence, regardless of strengths and weaknesses, could be determined and assigned an accurate value, called “g” (Brand and Kane).

Proponents of Spearman’s theory point out that multiple intelligence theory is not research based and therefore doesn’t produce quantifiable hard data (Armstrong 194).  Its effectiveness is difficult to gauge.

Other claim multiple intelligence theory “dumbs down curriculum.”  According to these critics, lessons incorporating music, art, and hands-on activities don’t produce solid, measurable results and thus have no place in a serious curriculum.  Furthermore, these lessons pose the danger of giving students a false sense of accomplishment, making students feel smart and capable – even if they are not. (Armstrong 194)

Spearman’s g and Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory seem to oppose one another.  But that isn’t necessarily a bad thing.  Competition between the theories will (hopefully) lead to improvements in education.

Yet, incorporating multiple intelligence theory into lessons doesn’t need to undermine the goals of standardized testing and curriculums.  As my examples show, educators can incorporate the nine intelligences into a standard curriculum.  The two theories can coexist.

Nine Intelligences! Assemble!

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Photo by Pat Loika

Whatever the case, multiple intelligence theory has too many benefits to ignore.  To argue over a lack of hard data is to miss the theory’s point – education needs to address its learners’ diversity.

For me the theory became a useful, convenient tool for adding diversity to lessons.  But the nine intelligences, my secret spices, those lesson-saving heroes add up to more than just a convenient “trick.”

As an English teacher it pleases me to see students do well on tests.  But engineering lessons that awaken students that “hate,” “don’t understand” or “have no need for” English provides the most satisfying experience of all.

By harnessing the nine intelligences, I’ve been able to reach the unreachable, inspire the uninspired, motivate the unmotivated, and English the “unEnglishable” (is that a flash of linguistic intelligence there or a lack thereof?).  For students that have never tasted success, that have never been given the opportunity to discover or use their talents in the classroom, sometimes a little variety is all it takes.

Bonus Wallpapers!

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Sources

  • Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. 3rd ed. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2009. Print.
  • Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons. New York: Basic, 2006. Print.
  • Kane, Harrison, and Chris Brand. The Importance of Spearman’s g As a Psychometric, Social, and Educational Construct. The Occidental Quarterly v3.n1 (Spring 2003).

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Hell’s Bells: Gamers Steer Animal Crossing up a Silent Hill http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/03/hells-bells-gamers-steer-animal-crossing-up-a-silent-hill/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/03/hells-bells-gamers-steer-animal-crossing-up-a-silent-hill/#comments Fri, 03 Oct 2014 16:00:55 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=44450 There’s no wrong way to play Animal Crossing: New Leaf, which, depending on the kind of person you are, can be extremely frustrating or tremendously liberating. In this Nintendo 3DS game, you are the new mayor and it’s your job to develop your town, but what that means exactly is largely up to you. You […]

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There’s no wrong way to play Animal Crossing: New Leaf, which, depending on the kind of person you are, can be extremely frustrating or tremendously liberating. In this Nintendo 3DS game, you are the new mayor and it’s your job to develop your town, but what that means exactly is largely up to you. You can spend your time paying off your debt to loan shark Tom Nook, collecting bugs, funding public works projects, filling your house entirely with toilets, and on and on.

But, if ambition levels are really high, your sunny town with its cutesy animal villagers can be transformed into a desolate nightmare where murder and mayhem run rampant. Really. At least, that’s what a growing number of Japanese players are doing. But their creations aren’t just towns with creepy atmospheres and gory garnish. These players are using Animal Crossing as a medium for telling unique narratives that borrow extensively from the Japanese horror genre.

We’ll take a tour through three of these creeptastic towns, dissecting their cultural elements and unearthing their Japanese horror roots. And don’t worry—you can hold my hand if you get scared.

Enter Diablo

animal-crossing-diablo-town

What’s cool about Animal Crossing: New Leaf is that it allows players to visit each other’s towns in “dreams” i.e. players explore what are essentially snapshots of other Animal Crossing towns using the 3DS’ Wi-Fi capabilities. They can interact with characters and objects, but they can’t permanently alter anything. (So sorry, you don’t get to maniacally level someone else’s trees.)

When your avatar “dreams” of the Japanese nightmare town でぃあぶる (Diablo), you arrive in your pajamas and are free to explore Diablo’s every nook and cranny, but the horror story to be uncovered here primarily takes place inside two large buildings. The first is modestly decorated with a number of small bedrooms. Canvases are set up everywhere you turn: This is some kind of artists’ retreat. But as you walk from room to room, you notice everyone’s been painting the same dark forest over and over. Look a little closer and you see a small, red-hooded figure in these paintings. She gets closer and closer in each painting, until finally she escapes her canvas confines entirely.

The red-hooded figure appears in the form of a smiling, red-hooded doll who sits behind the unsuspecting painters, ax lying on the floor nearby. One artist is missing, having left only a bloodied bed behind in his room and a painting of a red-hooded girl walking back through the forest. Look over the shoulder of one of the only still-surviving artists and you’ll see his half-finished painting of the same forest.

The other house in Diablo is where you’ll find the artist who summoned this evil red-hooded girl, either to curse her fellow artists or, if the high-quality art crammed inside her house is a clue, gain amazing artistic abilities for her own. (When you talk to her, she also laughs suspiciously. Never trust a suspicious katakana laugh.)

The creator of Diablo does lighten the mood with a weird joke, though. Walk around town long enough and you’ll run into Sanji. He’s the well-dressed cook and womanizer from One Piece, Japan’s best-selling manga and anime series about pirates. So there’s that.

Psyching You Out

the-ring-movie

Diablo’s narrative structure is simpler and its gore lighter than most of the other Animal Crossing nightmare towns I’ve ventured through, but I think that’s what makes it such a great example of suspense and psychological horror—two of contemporary Japanese horror’s biggest calling cards.

After the hyper-gore and violence of ’80s horror movies like the Guinea Pig film series, one of which was mistaken for a genuine snuff film by Charlie Sheen who then reported the filmmakers to the FBI (really!), the ’90s saw a stylistic shift in J-horror. Jay McRoy, author of Nightmare Japan: Contemporary Japanese Cinema, specifically points to Tsuruta Norio’s Scary True Stories as influencing many of the big names in the J-horror genre. (Instead of blood and guts, Norio went the other way and focused on disturbing creepiness, like ghostly figures with long black hair.)

Although there’s no typical black-haired vengeful ghost in Diablo, I think this nightmare town fits alongside movies like Ring and One Missed Call. Much like the characters in these movies, who must survive cursed videotapes and phones, the painters of Diablo are faced with canvases that a malevolent force uses to find and kill them. And the evil spirits in all these stories aren’t being too picky, acting as more of an apocalyptic force of evil. These horror stories aren’t about the individual being psychologically tortured per se; they’re more about the threat society itself is under from this unstoppable, wide-reaching attack – and they don’t need a lot of gore to get their point across. If you know what you’re doing a TV full of static or a half-finished painting of a forest is all you need to put your audience on edge.

The Animal Cannibals

animal-crossing-hitokui-town

At first blush, ひとくい (Hitokui) seems like a throwback to American horror film classics, like Silence of the Lambs and Texas Chainsaw Massacre. Hitokui means “cannibalism,” after all, and when you wander into the basement of the town restaurant filled with cleavers in puddles of blood and empty baby cribs, it’s clear the chef (named Ed Gein) has been cooking with some unusual ingredients. (Every building in Hitokui is designed this way, with the ground floor appearing normal, almost eerily so, and basements and second floors acting as plot twists or scary reveals.)

But the on-the-nose town name proves to be semi-false advertising the deeper you go, and Hitokui’s narrative quickly reveals its classic Japanese horror roots. For example, when you wander into one of the buildings south of the town square, you find yourself at a Japanese funeral, complete with registry book, incense and floor cushions. There’s even a large bonfire downstairs where a cremation might be taking place later. Shide (Shinto paper amulets) cover the walls in many of the rooms, some of which are dripping with blood…

But maybe the most mysterious room in this building is upstairs, where the figure of a woman is using an old-fashioned spinning wheel. There are also four incense burners, four floor cushions, and four wardrobes in the room with her. (Four is associated with death in Japan, since both “four” and “death” can be pronounced the same way. Since there’s so much death in this room with her, she’s probably intended to be a ghost.) All of that, combined with the samurai suit in another room, makes me think the creator of Hitokui is referencing the “Black Hair” short from the 1965 horror anthology film Kwaidan (based on Lafcadio Hearn’s collection of Japanese horror stories.)

“Black Hair” is the story of a samurai, who leaves his wife for another, and when he realizes his first wife is his true love some time later, he comes back to find her toiling away at her loom. They happily reunite and spend the evening together, but when morning arrives, he wakes up to discover he’s lying next to her lifeless, rotting body. She’s been dead for months. Yikes.

The mastermind behind Hitokui is thematically prepping us for the final house in town, where things take a sharper turn toward the macabre. Outside, there’s a guy walking around with his head wrapped in bandages, who says, “にがさない…” which means, “There’s no escape…” Step inside the house itself and you see it’s set up like a doctor’s waiting room, but hidden behind the bookcase is a lab full of grotesque experiments.

Upstairs is a completely red room, which could be a nod to the Japanese urban legend about an Internet pop-up ad that references a red room before its viewer dies. (Those pop-up ads are the worst!) Most notable in this particular red room, besides all the kid toys, is the bloody outline of a body on the bed. Kodokushi or “lonely death” is the Japanese word for when a person dies alone, but isn’t discovered for a long time, leaving an outline behind once their body is removed.

And finally, in the basement is the figure of a bride imprisoned behind large stone pillars. Her prison is furnished nicely enough, and even includes a baby crib. Outside her cage is a stool for a visitor and on your way back out, it’s easy to spot the security camera fixed on her.

Vengeful Ghosts

lantern-obake

Despite its name, to me, Hitokui isn’t about cannibalism at all. Rather, it’s telling that most traditional of Japanese stories: a ghost story.

Ghosts are everywhere in Japanese literature and art, and they’ve been popular subjects pretty much no matter how far back in Japanese history you go. But ghosts are part of everyday life in Japan, too, from the yearly Obon Festival to small Jizo statues. There are different kinds of Japanese ghosts, but the ones most recognizable to Japanese and foreigner alike are yurei: pale women dressed in white with long black hair. Their modus operandi has changed over the course of history, but typically, they’re out for revenge, having been wronged in their lives or in the manner of their deaths.

And a typical yurei is depicted in Hitokui – remember the portrait of the deceased at the funeral? She has long black hair and ghostly pale skin. (She’s also crying bloody tears…) And besides the more obvious fact that there are a few skeletons buried in town and one of the characters you can interact with asks “What’s that behind you?” as though seeing a ghost, you are also given two outfits to choose between when you first arrive in town: a police officer’s uniform or a bridal gown. Not only does this add a cool “Choose-Your-Own-Adventure” feel to Hitokui, but it is also as though you yourself are passing through Hitokui as a ghost. (Perhaps Hitokui’s law enforcement was killed while investigating the town’s mysteries and perhaps the bridal gown once belonged to the yurei herself – you’re playing as a shadow of what she once was.) Also there’s the nature of Animal Crossing’s Dream Suite itself – you can travel to and exist in these towns, but you can’t affect change.

Although not an exact retelling by any means, in my view, Hitokui is putting the Animal Crossing spin on the most famous of Japanese ghost stories: the story of Oiwa. The tale goes that Oiwa was married to a man named Iemon and together they had a child. One day, Iemon falls in love with another woman, but to be with her, he knows he needs to get rid of his current wife and kid. He tries poisoning Oiwa at first, but when that only manages to disfigure her, he kills Oiwa and their child outright. Naturally, Oiwa comes back to haunt him.

In this retelling, Oiwa is the deceased bride, whose funeral we see, whose child’s red bedroom we know once contained a body (presumably the kid’s), and who is now imprisoned in the basement of her old house. As a spin on the Oiwa story, there are hints that she might have been summoned to Hitokui, rather than appeared on her own (there’s a Satanic-esque sacrifice scene in the town church), but I do wonder if it’s not that Oiwa appeared as a yurei to punish her homicidal husband. Perhaps, a greater evil was summoned to combat her, but then once she was contained, this new evil didn’t leave and instead reigns over the town, perhaps cooking up the villagers in the local restaurant basement?

The Infamous Aika

animal-crossing-aika-town

Aika was the very first Animal Crossing nightmare town I heard about and its name inevitably gets invoked in pretty much any conversation about nightmare towns. Anecdotally, I would say it’s generally considered the gold standard and “The One” to check out.

So what’s going down in Aika town? Well, it’s really vague. (And in an interview with Nintendo Dream, the creator of Aika says she isn’t telling.)

Unlike other nightmare towns, Aika is very much designed to guide you through the town in a specific way. On the side of the river where you first appear, everything is Animal Crossing perfection. Roses bloom and golden fruit grows on all the trees. There’s only one house on this side of the river, and when you go in, you see what looks like a pretty happy family celebrating a little girl’s birthday. You figure out quickly that this little girl is Aika herself and when you talk to her she says: “おかあさん だいすき” or “I love you, Mommy.”

But then you cross the bridge to the other side of town and it’s a whole new setting. Rotting garbage litters the ground and all the grass is dead. When you see Aika again, she mixes up hiragana and katakana in her “I love you, Mommy” spiel. (And when you see her two more times after that, her speech continues to disturbingly worsen.) Inside the buildings themselves are pretty odd and abstract rooms, like one in which rows of dolls sit at a banquet and another that depicts the Genesis story (i.e. Adam and Eve) from the Bible.

The final house is identical to the first house we saw (the one with Aika’s birthday part), but now everyone is gone and garbage covers the floor. The TV is on, but it’s static. The grandfather clock’s hands point to 4 o’clock. Aika’s childish portraits of her family have everyone scrawled out in black except her. And if you walk down to the beach outside, you’ll find a pair of yellow shoes at the water’s edge. (In Japan, it’s common for people who are committing suicide, to take their shoes off and place them neatly together, the idea being that they’re crossing a threshold: from life to death.)

Getting Down with the Kaidan

Japanese-lanterns-in-nara

I’ll admit, I’m not entirely sure what story is being told through Aika. I do think that the town is meant to represent Aika’s psyche rather than a physical town, that Aika had a troubled relationship with her mother, and that due to some horrible event, Aika’s entire family including herself was killed. The town of Aika goes deeper than Diablo (where you’re just a hapless witness) and Hitokui (where you’re an observing ghost), because in Aika, you’re becoming a part of the yurei herself.

I mentioned before that Aika seems to get the most buzz out of all the other nightmare towns, and I imagine it’s probably because the story being told is both detailed and vague, personal and distant. People want to see Aika for themselves and read about everyone else’s widely varying Aika theories, not to mention share their own. Little do they know that in some ways, they’re playing Hyakumonogatari Kaidankai, or A Gathering of 100 Weird Tales, a Japanese story-telling game that can be traced back to as early as the 1600s.

The rules of Hyakumonogatari Kaidankai are pretty simple. A group gathers and places one hundred lit candles in a circle. Each person takes turns telling a scary story, then extinguishes a candle at the story’s end. As more stories are told, the light fades and darkness gathers. Supposedly, once the last candle is extinguished, whatever terrible thing is lurking in the shadows will spring forth.

Enter Sandman

animal-crossing-horror-town-address

Aika, Hitokui, Diablo and all the other Animal Crossing nightmare towns shared online remind me of this old Japanese game. The point isn’t to figure out the “truth” behind Aika, say, but to come back with a spooky story to tell your friends. People swap these nightmare town stories back and forth across various websites, seeing who can tell the scariest one, and how many candle flames can go out before the game ends.

But, as Levar Burton would say, “you don’t have to take my word for it!” If you’d like to explore these towns for yourself and come up with your own theories and observations, their town dream codes are:

Diablo: 3200-0330-2755
Hitokui: 2600-1856-4772
Aika: 2600-0218-7298

If you don’t have a way to play Animal Crossing: New Leaf, there are plenty of YouTube videos featuring these three nightmare towns (and many, many more).

But if you’ve ventured into New Leaf nightmare towns before, tell me how you’ve interpreted these places. That way, we can continue the Japanese tradition of gathering darkness.

Bonus Wallpapers!

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Sources:

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Kamaboko: A Pureed Fish Cake Fit For Celebration http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/01/kamaboko-a-pureed-fish-cake-fit-for-celebration/ http://www.tofugu.com/2014/10/01/kamaboko-a-pureed-fish-cake-fit-for-celebration/#comments Wed, 01 Oct 2014 16:01:00 +0000 http://www.tofugu.com/?p=42120 What’s better than pureed fish made into a cake? Not much, I say. Kamaboko is exactly that, a traditional type of fish cake that is closely connected to Japanese celebrations, though slightly less now following the arrival of the Western cake. I took a trip to a kamaboko museum with Shoko, who wrote a great […]

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What’s better than pureed fish made into a cake? Not much, I say. Kamaboko is exactly that, a traditional type of fish cake that is closely connected to Japanese celebrations, though slightly less now following the arrival of the Western cake. I took a trip to a kamaboko museum with Shoko, who wrote a great travel piece about it. So that you can further enjoy our experience at the kamaboko museum, I thought we could first learn about this traditional Japanese dish.

What Exactly Is Kamaboko?

kamaboko

Photo by Hajime NAKANO

Simply put, kamaboko is a variety of Japanese fish cake. It’s made from the meat of several kinds of fresh fish or reprocessed pureed white fish called surimi. It’s actually not all that hard to make, either. Fresh fish is mashed into a paste, some seasoning is added, and then it is formed and cooked. IT’s usually formed into a loaf-like shape, and then steamed on wooden boards until fully cooked and firm. It can actually be formed into many other shapes and sizes as well, and can also be cooked by boiling, broiling, or deep-frying it. It can be served chilled, in a noodle dish, in a hot soup (such as oden), or in a variety of other delicious ways.

kamaboko-deepfried

Photo by Takekazu Omi

kamaboko-ozoni

kamaboko-bento

Photo by gamene

In fact, if you are familiar with fake crab meat, often used in “California Rolls”, you may have had a type of kamaboko. This type of kamaboko is called kani-kama in Japan, which is an abbreviation of kani (crab) and kamaboko.

kani-kama

Photo by Samson Loo

Despite its delicious taste, it’s full of health benefits as well. It contains very little fat, relatively large amounts of nutrients, and a very large amount of well-balanced proteins. kamaboko includes a well-balanced array of amino acids, including all nine essential amino acids. A study conducted by Tokyo University’s Department of Food Science and Technology also found kamaboko to have anti-oxidative effects.

History Of Kamaboko

kamaboko-history

Photo by netagura

It’s unknown when exactly kamaboko was first made in history, but the first known record of it is in picture form found in a tome from the Heian period. With detailed sketches, the book, called 類聚雑要抄 (ruijuu-zatsuyoushou), primarily depicts the furnishings and costumes of nobility for traditional ceremonies and events. There is also an illustration of kamaboko placed on a bamboo skewer, which was served when 藤原忠実 (Fujiwara-no-tadazane) held a feast to celebrate his moving to a new house in 1115 AD. Discovering the year in which Fujiwara-no-tadazane moved into his new house gave Japan the idea for Kamaboko Day, which is now held on November 15. Get it? 1115AD = 11-15, November 15!

As it’s depicted in the book, early kamaboko was wrapped around the end of a bamboo stick. It’s said the name became 蒲鉾 (kama-boko), which literally means cattail-spear, because the look of it is resembles the head of the cattail (plant), which is called 蒲 (Gama) in Japanese. Speaking of cats, the early kamaboko was made from freshwater catfish, whereas nowadays it’s made from saltwater fish.

The Edo period was when kamaboko on a cedar plank appeared. In order to distinguish the two types of kamaboko, people started calling the original tube-shaped kamaboko 竹輪蒲鉾 (chikuwa-kamaboko), which literally means bamboo ring kamaboko and called the loaf-shaped one 板蒲鉾 (ita-kamaboko), which literally means plank kamaboko. Eventually, the name kamaboko fell off from the chikuwa version and that tube-shaped one was simply called chikuwa, whereas the loaf-shaped one took the name kamaboko.

The oldest remaining kamaboko company in Japan is 美濃屋吉兵衛商店 (Minoya-Kichibee-Shouten) and was established around 1550 AD. It is located near Odawara station in Kanagawa Prefecture. When Shoko and I visited the museum, we didn’t do a large enough preliminary investigation into Kamaboko and we missed this place as a result. My apologies!

There were also some distinctive differences between the kamaboko from the Kansai area (Western Japan including Kyoto and Osaka) and the Kanto area (Eastern Japan including Tokyo). In Kanto, kamaboko was steamed. In Kansai, it was grilled after being steamed. It’s believed that this difference arose because the main cities on Kansai (Kyoto and Osaka) were far from the sea, so they grilled it for preservation purposes. A well known saying “江戸は蒸し、京坂は焼き” (Edo wa mushi, Keihan wa yaki), meaning “Edo (now Tokyo) is steamed and Keihan (Kyoto and Osaka) is grilled” found its origins as a result of this difference. This phrase characterizes the stereotypical cooking styles of the two regions still practiced today. Kamaboko isn’t the only dish that follows that cooking trend – check out the regional differences in these products’ eels.

Celebrating With Kamaboko

kamaboko-celebration

In early kamaboko history, white fish was very expensive and kamaboko was considered a feast. Thus, it was used as a special gift or the type of food served at celebratory feasts. It is said that kamaboko was the favorite food of 豊臣秀頼 (Toyotomi Hideyori), who was the son and designated successor of 豊臣秀吉 (Toyotomi Hideyoshi), the general who first united all of Japan. It was also served as the final meal of 織田信長 (Oda Nobunaga), one of the three unifiers of pre-modern Japan, before he was killed by the 本能寺の変 (Honnō-ji no hen – the Honnō-ji Incident) in 1582.

In Samurai custom, the sea bream was considered as a bringer of good luck because it had a beautiful red color, which was thought to be a lucky color. Sea Bream was rare, had elegant taste, and its name 鯛 (tai) was a play on the word めでたい (medetai), which means happy or joyous. Therefore, the sea bream became essential for wedding celebrations, but only to those who could afford it. When a real fish was too expensive to buy, a picture or an imitation fish would be substituted in its place, and 細工蒲鉾 (saiku-kamaboko) or 飾り蒲鉾 (kazari-kamaboko), which means decorative kamaboko, was used for this. This custom can still be seen in several places throughout Japan.

For example, in Toyoama prefecture, people who are invited to join the wedding ceremony are given a big, decorative kamaboko shaped like a sea bream, a crane, a tortoise (a symbol of longevity) or Mt. Fuji. Then, when they return home, they cut it up and hand it out to their neighbors to inform them of the marriage. If it’s in the shape of a sea bream, a family gives away the head and body parts and keeps the tail as their own.

The Words Delivered From Kamaboko

kamaboko-shape

Photo by kazuh

Due to kamaboko’s large role in Japanese culture, there are various words in the Japanese language that are derived from kamaboko.

For example, we say 蒲鉾型 (kamaboko-gata) or “kamaboko-shaped”, to describe anything that is D-shaped. The arch-like barracks in military garrisons are sometimes called 蒲鉾兵舎 (kamaboko-heisha), which means Kamaboko barracks, as well. We also call the security vehicles of riot police Kamaboko because the style of the original riot police vehicles were similarly shaped. When you go bowling, if the oil used to make the lane more slippery is too thick in the middle and thin on the sides, it’s called 蒲鉾型レーン (kamaboko-gata-reen), which means kamaboko-shaped lane.

Or, there is the word かまとと (kamatoto), which means a girl who pretends to be sweet and innocent. This word was made up for this type of woman, especially a prostitute in from the Edo period, who would ask questions like, “Is this fish?” (fish is toto in old Japanese / sakana in current Japanese) while pointing at kamaboko and thus pretending that she knew nothing about the world. In the world of sumo, escaping from practice was also called kamaboko. Imagine a sumo wrestler trying to sneak out of camp, and while trying to avoid being seen, needing to put his back up against a wall – this conjured images of kamaboko on a cedar plank.

How To Eat Kamaboko

kamaboko-food

The Suzuhiro Museum we visited explained that the thickness and the temperature of kamaboko are important for getting the maximum taste out of it. When you eat kamaboko by itself, 12mm of thickness is ideal for enjoying the texture and flavor of the fish. When you want to use it as an ingredient, but still want a bit of its texture, you can thinly slice it. For example, if you slice it to 3mm, it can be a substitute for BACON! If you want to retain a lot of its flavor, cut it to around 15mm thick and add it to salad or other dishes.

The other important factor is temperature. Since it contains a lot of proteins, which can easily be denatured by heat, when you heat kamaboko in the wrong way it loses its nice texture and becomes quite hard. So, eating it at a cool temperature is the best, but if you really want to heat it, just heat up its surface at high heat very quickly and make sure the heat doesn’t make its way to the center of the kamaboko.

There is lot more to explore regarding kamaboko, especially in its ability to decorate food, but I’ll save that for the next time because I’m hungry for kamaboko, so I’ll need to begin my kamaboko hunt.

Bonus Wallpapers!

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