by

Learning Japanese is pretty tough on its own, but what lots of people don’t know is that there are a ton of different Japanese dialects, depending what part of the country you’re in. The way people talk in the northern part of Japan can be totally different than the way people sound in the south, which might be really confusing for people learning Japanese.

Thankfully we have a guest post from our friend Ken Cannon, who runs the site Japanese Through Anime. He’s here to teach us about the most difficult dialect in Japanese. Are you up for the challenge?

What’s a dialect?

A dialect is a version of a language that can have different accents, grammar, or sometimes even vocabulary. Japan has dozens of dialects! Some varying only a wee bit, and some others varying a lot. But most of the time, a dialect isn’t so different that native speakers can’t understand.

The 3 most notable Japanese dialects are:

1) Standard Japanese: Spoken in Tokyo, on TV, in anime, etc.. This is basically the official language of Japan, the one you all know and love. It’s also called Hyojungo.

2) Kansai Dialect: Spoken in the Western part of Japan, around Osaka. This type of Japanese is often associated with the weird combination of comedians and yakuza.

3) Tohoku Dialect: Usually associated with farmers and country folk. Cool, right?

What’s Tohoku-ben?

Tohoku-ben is a Japanese dialect that’s interesting because it’s known as the hardest dialect to understand. In fact, Tohoku-ben is so different from standard Japanese that even native Japanese speakers often can’t understand it and need subtitles whenever people speaking this dialect appear on TV or in movies.

Here’s an example of pronunciation in Tohoku-ben:

[yframe url=’http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uAUHzjgI6Dg’]

Tohoku-ben is spoken in the Tohoku region of Japan, which extends from slightly east of Tokyo all the way up to Hokkaido. And to get you really motivated, there isn’t just one Tohoku-ben, but about a dozen different versions of it spoken throughout the region.

Today we are going to be focusing on Tsugaru-ben in particular, which is spoken in Aomori, the northern most part of Tohoku. Tsugaru-ben is arguably the furthest sounding dialect from standard Japanese.

[yframe url=’http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S2fnAgnbp7c’]

The Stereotype

One of the reasons Tohoku-ben is so hard for most people to grasp is that unlike Kansai-ben, most Tohoku-ben speakers hide their accents when speaking to anyone outside of Tohoku. Therefore it’s hard to get any practice with native Tohoku-ben speakers.

A big reason Tohoku-ben speakers are so shy is the negative nickname “zuu zuu ben” I mentioned in the video. Tohoku-ben is sometimes called “zuu zuu ben” because speakers avoid opening their mouths too much when speaking and in effect causes their speech to sound very slurred and lazy, kind of like they were saying “zuu zuu muu nuuu buu” instead of words.

This nickname brings a big, negative stereotype to Tohoku speakers with other Japanese. Tohoku speakers are seen as  lazy country bumpkins. Most speakers of this dialect don’t like to be seen speaking it outside of their hometowns, especially the younger crowds.

[yframe url=’http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8uiVZdEIscA’]

This vending machine in Japan has a Tohoku-ben setting!

And this isn’t even mentioning the fact that Japan is currently trying to blotch out most dialects and create a single standard Japanese language by forcing all printed material and media to be in Hyojungo. This kind of goes hand in hand with Japan’s need for conformity or, if you don’t want to be a jerk about it, unity. But all the same, it is quite a shame.

Tsugaru-Ben Vocab

Now getting into some vocab I promised you in the video, we’ll start with my favorite Tsugaru-ben vocab:

1)  まいね – (maine) – bad

Maine is the Tohoku version of the standard Japanese dame or ikenai, which mean “bad.”

Let’s try an example sentence!

Tsugaru: Geimusho sa iganeba maine jya
Standard Japanese:
Geimusho ni ikenakucha ikenai
English:
I gotta go to prison/ If I don’t go prison it’ll be bad

You’ll notice in this sentence that sa is used in place of the standard ni.

Next, the two most common Tsugaru ben words.

2) わ + な – (wa and na) – (I and you)

These mean “I” and “you” respectively, and come from shortened versions of the standard watashi and anata.

Tsugaru: Wa shinobi da be
Standard Japanese: Watashi wa shinobi darou
English: I’m probably a ninja

Tsugaru: Na shinobi jya nee be
Standard Japanese:  Anata wa shinobi jya nai deshou
English: You’re probably not a ninja

3) んだ + んだが – (nda and nda ga) – (That’s right and really?)

If you didn’t know, sou desu and sou desu ka – or “that’s” right” and “really?” – are used all the time in Japanese. So as you can guess, the same goes for their Tsugaru-ben counterparts: nda and nda ga.

Tsugaru: Nda wa megoi jya
Standard Japanese: Sou da watashi wa kawaii yo
English: That’s right, I’m cute!

Tsugaru: Nda ga? Koichi-san, jikko ga?
Standard Japanese: Sou desu ka? Koichi-san wa ojiisan ka?
English: Really? Koichi is a grandpa?

And for our last bit of vocab for the day:

4) だはんで + はんで – (da hande) – (therefore)

Dahande is the Tohoku-ben equivalent of the standard dakara, or “therefore” in English. This word goes in between two clauses that you want to cite as being the cause of another.

Tsugaru: Wa sekushi da hande, Hashi-san wa no godo ni agogareru jya
Standard Japanese: Watashi wa sekushi dakara, Hashi-san wa watashi no koto ni akogareru yo!
English: I’m sexy, therefore Hashi yearns for me.

And if you want to hear more Tsugaru-ben, there’s a movie that was recently produced in Japan all in Tsugaru-ben, which is very rare for the reasons stated above. It’s called Bare Essence of Life Ultra-Miracle Love Story, and for the amount of self-inflicted brain damage it includes, it might make it on some people’s list of strange Japanese movies.

[yframe url=’http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IA7azF3HZ4k’]

P.S. Be sure to follow Tofugu on Twitter!

P.P.S. Or you can be super awesome and Like Tofugu on Facebook!

  • http://twitter.com/Bbvoncrumb Stefan Bullivant

    Does that mean that は as a particle isn’t used much? “wa ha” jesus sounds ridiculous. wa wa… wa wa….

  • http://twitter.com/Bbvoncrumb Stefan Bullivant

    Does that mean that は as a particle isn’t used much? “wa ha” jesus sounds ridiculous. wa wa… wa wa….

  • Anonymous

    For some reason I remember my teacher saying in class that some of the characters in One Piece use a southern Japanese accent, from around the Ryukyu Islands, but I have no idea what it is called.

    It is amazing that Japanese dialects even have their own vocabulary!

  • Anonymous

    For some reason I remember my teacher saying in class that some of the characters in One Piece use a southern Japanese accent, from around the Ryukyu Islands, but I have no idea what it is called.

    It is amazing that Japanese dialects even have their own vocabulary!

  • PepperBunny

    Dialects are one thing that throws me off and makes me fret so I just ignore others an focus on the main/popular one, is that a good thing?

    We can always get used to the others once where a bit further down the japanese line I hope…

    And on this subject, thats really different! but I understand it…if anyone lives in England an has been to Scotland or talked to Scottish folk this will seem familiar!
    My father an thus one half of my family are scottish and they use many different words but Ive had a lot of expirience with them so I understand them well haha ^^;

  • バイソン

    Great article!! Fascinating.

  • http://www.facebook.com/Angel.Valis Sean Douglas

    Ryukyu is probably Okinawan.

  • http://www.facebook.com/Angel.Valis Sean Douglas

    Some random supplementary information:

    The term “Dialect” is a very misleading term because it can be used to refer to a wide range of linguistic variance. In the United States, the standard dialect (RP or received pronunciation) is the Midwestern dialect spoken around Michigan and Ohio (ever wonder why southern newscasters tend not to have [as] pronounced accents?). Americans from the south speak a few different southern dialects which normally aren’t too hard to understand for English speakers (esp. American English speakers). 
    Now take Spanish, French and Italian. These are all considered different languages, and yet speakers of these languages can somewhat understand one another’s speech and writing. There are other “languages” that are even more mutually intelligible.Finally let’s look at Chinese. The two major dialects of Chinese that most people are familiar with are Mandarin and Cantonese. While they are considered dialects of Chinese, they are mutually unintelligible and a Mandarin speaker would have no idea what a Cantonese speaker was saying and vice versa. Of course the really interesting thing with Chinese is that they use the same written characters for the same words, and thus a Cantonese speaker can understand the writing of a Mandarin speaker and vice versa.

  • Anonymous

    I heard Nakai Masahiro say “da be” a few times (not in conversation; hard to explain) on Utaban, and now I finally know where it’s from…

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    Very interesting random supplementary information :) So did we use the wrong word by saying “dialect,” or is the term itself just very misleading?

  • http://twitter.com/KenKyanon Ken Cannon

    Yup! Especially after using the word “you”… in fact being a lazy dialect in general, Tohoku speakers will omit a lot of particles when talking. Same with the standard dialect as well though, for people who like to speak really slangy. 

  • http://www.facebook.com/Angel.Valis Sean Douglas

    No worries, it’s the term itself that’s iffy. Perhaps there’s some part of the term’s definition that I’m missing, but I remember covering this in a linguistics class; there are times when a dialect is more like what we would initially think of as a language and times when a language is more like what we might initially consider a dialect. If I had to hazard a guess, I might say that it could be political. Spanish, French and Italian are different languages because of national boundaries, and on the same note, Mandarin and Cantonese are just dialects.

  • http://twitter.com/SuperNoonim Ko

    I’ve seen a couple dramas where a character comes from tohoku region (aomori especially for some reason) and I almost thought they legit switched to speaking chinese.  i love dialects though, they’re so fun.

  • Alina

    Politics is involved very much in deciding what is a dialect and what is a dialect. Okinawan languages are nowadays accepted as sister languages to Japanese, but in the old colonial times they were considered dialects. Also, mail difference between a language and a dialect is the existence of different grammar. Spanish and French and Italian and all the other Latin  languages have a common ancestor, but have evolved in very different ways, so the grammars are different. 

    Also, I think you should talk about the Tohoku dialects family in with Tsugaru-ben is a member (but not the most representative!). 

    And “kawaii” is “menkoi” in Tsugaru-ben. I heard it sometimes and “mengoi”, but never as “megoi”…

     “Keppare”. :)

  • Alina

    *what is dialect and what is language 

  • kazuko

    Koichi and Ken are really really learning Japanese.I don’t understand Tohoku dialect very well.Especially, Tugaru dialect is very difficult. I can’t understand what Tugaru people say  if subtitles are not seen. My grandpa lives in Niigata prefecture. I can’t understand very well what he says though I love he…There are many kinds of dialects in Japan. むづかしいね。 

  • kazuko

    Koichi and Ken are really really learning Japanese.I don’t understand Tohoku dialect very well.Especially, Tugaru dialect is very difficult. I can’t understand what Tugaru people say  if subtitles are not seen. My grandpa lives in Niigata prefecture. I can’t understand very well what he says though I love him…There are many kinds of dialects in Japan. むづかしいね。

  • Mars

    “Tohoku-ben is sometimes called “zuu zuu ben” because speakers avoid opening ***there mouth*** too much when speaking and in effect causes their speech to sound very slurred and lazy, kind of like they were saying “zuu zuu muu nuuu buu” instead of words.”

    There mouth > Their mouths

    I don’t think it’s a big deal, and maybe you don’t either, but just in case, here’s something to edit.

  • Tenshi

    The standard joke in linguistics is that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy. (that’s considered hilarious in linguistic circles). Basically, languages get called dialects when they don’t have their own country, and languages when they do, even when they are very similar/mutually intelligible with another language. Swedish and Norwegian are the same language, but they get listed as two because they are two different countries. 
    Chinese has LOTS of dialects/languages, but it’s all one country, so they all get lumped together. The only reason anyone has heard of Cantonese is because they speak it in Hong Kong, which wasn’t part of China for a while (British colony). There are “dialects” of Chinese with a lot more speakers than Cantonese, but Cantonese was an official language in HK, and a lot of wealthier Chinese emigrants come from there (it’s the wealthiest part of China), so a lot of early Chinese-Americans spoke Cantonese and not Mandarin, even though Mandarin has been the official standard language for over a century (Mandarin is based on the dialect in the capital, as spoken by Imperial bureaucrats or “mandarins”, which is where the name comes from. In Chinese, it’s called guoyu, the national language, or putonghua, the common tongue).
    The whole dialect thing can get really complicated and political (try telling someone who speaks Basque or Catalan that they speak Spanish, for example), and lots of separatist/independence movements try to get their dialect “recognized” as an “independent language” for political reasons, even though there’s no good definition.
    Even in Japanese, there are a couple of examples. Both Hokkaido and Okinawa were not part of the Japanese nation until after the Meiji Restoration (1868). Okinawa was the Kingdom of the Ryukyuus, and they paid tribute to both the Japanese Shogun and the Chinese Emperor, and both countries claimed it, but by the time of Meiji, Japan was a lot stronger than China, so they basically just took it over. So Okinawan is called a dialect of Japanese, even though historically and linguistically they actually have very little in common. 
    The same is true for the Ainu, the native people of Hokkaido – the Japanese government treated them a lot like the US government treated Native Americans at the time – gave them smallpox, got them addicted to alcohol, destroyed traditional ways of life, stole their land, rounded them up and put them in reservations to “protect” them, etc. Their language is also considered a dialect of Japanese, even though it might be  the other way around – some scholars argue that the Ainu were the original inhabitants of all the Japanese islands, and that the people we know as the Japanese today were the product of a number of invasions and migrations, which pushed the Ainu east and north until they ended up on Hokkaido.

    So, basically, the whole language/dialect thing is a big mess, and there’s no way to sort it out without offending a lot of people in the process, so just call it whatever you like and hope whoever you’re talking to doesn’t get pissed off.

  • jhg

    that’s funny.  the whole ‘it is cold so they must be lazy and that’s why they speak funny’ is like a temperature opposite of why southerners in US have a drawl.  the idea for us southerners are that it’s too hot and humid so we are all lazy and don’t talk properly. ….. y’all.  then again, growing up in a very rural part of the south, i did actually know a guy that talked like boomhauer from King of the Hill, so maybe there is something to that….

  • Soshi

    Great! This came just in time for my trip to Tohoku! :D 

  • Vale

    You should do a post about the Okinawan dialect. Even more hilarious. (And Tohoku-ben has Isaka Kotaro to popularize it.)

  • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1484624515 Stephen Thomas Garr

    This article reminds me of Tentomon and Armadimon.

  • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1484624515 Stephen Thomas Garr

    This article reminds me of Tentomon and Armadimon.

  • susanne

    Well, German speaking countries have like a zillions of dialects. Some decades ago, one was able to tell from which villige people origin just by listening to them.
    Well, today since people move more often and merry across boundaries, it is harder to tell, dialects get mixed up. And they fade, unfortunately.

    Switzerland has a large variety of Swissgerman dialects which use different words, pronunciation and grammar, some are hardly understandable for most of the Swiss speaking people, like the Walliser German.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swiss_German
    For getting an idea have a look at the Chuchichäschtli-Orakel available at http://dialects.from.ch/
    There are lots of different words for Holzsplitter (splinter) or Mond (moon).

    For serveral years lot’s of words and some singularity of the different dialects are getting lost, since nothing is written. Books and newspapers are written in Standard German, TV ist mostly spoken in (literally) Standard German – there are hardly any accents allowed.
    This influences the dialects. Moreover there are more and more working immigrants from Germany which usually don’t understand dialects for quite some time.

    In the meantime more and more people are trying to revitalize older words, beeing proud of using the proper dialect words rather than  mainstream “imported” ones.

    I don’t think Japan is doing any good to it’s people by trying to eliminate dialects. Dialect is identity. What happens to people having no proper identiy or roots, you can watch all over the world.

    P.S.
    I like the movie “Bienvenue Chez Les Ch’tis”
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bienvenue_chez_les_Ch%27tis
    it’s about dialects an prejudices of native Ch’ti speakers. Ch’ti is considered Patois, which means backward and countrified and definitely not Parisien-Area-French
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patois
    It’s really funny to listen to the original language, if you know some French or at least how it usually sounds. Words are getting really mixed up because of the way they are spoken.

  • Southtreyparker

    Very interesting post, even for me, as a native Japanese! 

    I just remembered one foreign TV personality in Japan, Daniel Cahl, an American of German descent. He is famous for speaking very fluent Tohoku-ben (precisely Yamagata-ben)!!
    You can see him speaking here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1jp6DxYa3rw (subtitled)
    (He’s talking about the earthquake and nuclear problem.)

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    This is pretty much the most education comment I’ve ever read on Tofugu. :o

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    This is pretty much the most education comment I’ve ever read on Tofugu. :o

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    This is pretty much the most education comment I’ve ever read on Tofugu. :o

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    This is pretty much the most education comment I’ve ever read on Tofugu. :o

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    D’oh! Editor fail :( Thanks for pointing that out, fixing it now.

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    D’oh! Editor fail :( Thanks for pointing that out, fixing it now.

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    D’oh! Editor fail :( Thanks for pointing that out, fixing it now.

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    D’oh! Editor fail :( Thanks for pointing that out, fixing it now.

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    Haha yeah, I thought about including something comparing Tohoku-ben to American southern accents, but couldn’t find a place to fit it in. That’s pretty awesome about the Boomhauer guy :D

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    Haha yeah, I thought about including something comparing Tohoku-ben to American southern accents, but couldn’t find a place to fit it in. That’s pretty awesome about the Boomhauer guy :D

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    I would think that German languages in particular would be really interesting, especially considering Germany wasn’t really a unified country until very recently.

    Thanks for the comment!

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    I would think that German languages in particular would be really interesting, especially considering Germany wasn’t really a unified country until very recently.

    Thanks for the comment!

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    I would think that German languages in particular would be really interesting, especially considering Germany wasn’t really a unified country until very recently.

    Thanks for the comment!

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    I would think that German languages in particular would be really interesting, especially considering Germany wasn’t really a unified country until very recently.

    Thanks for the comment!

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    I hadn’t heard of him before, very interesting. Thanks for the comment!

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    I hadn’t heard of him before, very interesting. Thanks for the comment!

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    I hadn’t heard of him before, very interesting. Thanks for the comment!

  • Mars

    Feel free to delete.

  • http://twitter.com/KenKyanon Ken Cannon

    That interesting. And whoops! Typo… it should have been “mengoi” up there :) Thanks!

  • http://twitter.com/KenKyanon Ken Cannon

    Whoa, I for one learned something.. Thanks! :]

  • http://twitter.com/KenKyanon Ken Cannon

    Whoa, I for one learned something.. Thanks! :]

  • http://twitter.com/KenKyanon Ken Cannon

    Have fun! ^^

  • http://twitter.com/KenKyanon Ken Cannon

    Have fun! ^^

  • http://twitter.com/KenKyanon Ken Cannon

    Have fun! ^^

  • DeeLeigh

    I’m not the only one!!! It’s too hot and takes too much energy to form words properly!!

  • DeeLeigh

    ….Maybe it’s because I grew up in the South, but I love this kinda thing!!! Those who speak Tsugaru “dialect”, should wear it as a badge of honor!! It’s pretty saddening to know that people what to get rid of such a unique way of speaking and an interesting part of that “culture”, just so everyone can sound alike…

  • http://profiles.google.com/japan.alana Alana Green

    This is great!  I live in Iwate so the Japanese I have learned has a Tohoku style to it. Mostly more inflection than other parts of Japan.  I can’t understand my Japanese boyfriend’s parents becase they speak a kind of Tohoku ben.  The TV station in Iwate is called Menkoi TV.  Menkoi means cute.  Old ladies sometimes call me menkoi! :D

  • Anonymous

    It’s about as misleading as saying alphabet instead of syllabary… IE it isn’t unless someone wants to pick a fight =)

  • Jhgoforth

    i imagine it’s probably closest in being unintelligible as cajun is for us.  any time you see deep south cajun speakers, even if they’re speaking english, it’s very common for them to subtitle them. though to be fair, it seems like sometimes they subtitle people in US media that I understand just fine…which worries me at times lol.

  • Snivvs

    I agree with Hashi and Ken, this post is pretty awesome. Thanks for the knowledge! =D

  • Madbeanman

    As a gaijin fresh off the plane this post was extremely terrifying, although it should have been much less surprising for me than it was.

    To add to what other people have said linguistic variance in dialect is usually more prominent in countries where a language has been spoken for a long time. For example as English has existed in Australia for a relatively short time in comparison to how long it has existed in Britain you will see a much greater variance in the number of accents in Britain (even between close by towns and cities) than you would in Australia whereby the dialect is fairly standardised nationwide. So by that logic there should be a gazillion (Linguistics term) Japanese dialects floating around.

    Also I was just wondering what part of the dialect Tokyo-ites cant understand. I mean I am from the East of Ireland but find it difficult to understand those from the South-West, however, the difficulty isnt necessarily in vocabulary even though they say crazy things, the difference is in accent which is influenced by Geography (although further research is required to prove that). So is it that Tohoku-Benners have a crazy accent or is it the vocabulary?

  • wohdin

    “Wa” and “na” as first- and second-person subject pronouns seem SO much more convenient than the standard Japanese forms. I have to wonder, though, does the “wa” here have anything to do with the sort of old-fashioned-sounding “wa ga” (我が/吾が) meaning “my/our/one’s own” (which seems to me to be derived from Chinese, since it uses the character 我 instead of 私)?

  • susanne

    Well, you can find some impressions of different German dialects on youtube
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fs-uAKJy804
    she speaks a couple of dialects including Swiss German (1:36) and does actually pretty well for a German speaking native.

    or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H44_U_PUa0k
    Trudi Gerster (the old lady, for decades known as a famous tale reader in Switzerland) reads the tale Snowwhite in a really old fashioned way.
    Mike Mueller, the big guy, as an “expert” of youth language, rewrote the tale to Yugo-slang. That’s what he actually speks (horrible grammar and matches words the wrong way like “I know where your house live”).
    Yugo is a disrespectful way to address people from ex Yugoslavia.
    Today, many young people talk Yugo-slang, even without having (Yugoslavian) migration background.
    Trudi Gerster tries to read the tale in Yugo-Slang (1:00), but she dislikes the wording. The young lady tries to moderate between those two with not much success.

    Mike Mueller, actually he is comedian, talks more Yugo-Slang at http://www.youtube.com/user/MergimMuzzafer

  • Heogw

    here’s babigo:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_fLKhOIqW8w

    it’s not a dialect but it seems very hard lol.

  • http://japanesepreschool.blogspot.com/ Christine

    U R crazy for understanding this!!

  • http://japanesepreschool.blogspot.com/ Christine

    U R crazy for understanding this!!

  • http://japanesepreschool.blogspot.com/ Christine

    U R crazy for understanding this!!

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    Woah, never heard of babigo before. Awesome!

  • Jon E.

    This post was incredibly insightful! Thank you SO much!! Bookmarking.

  • Imabilover1

    Wa and na actually come from Old Japanese 我 and 汝. The region of Tohoku was the last part of Honshuu to be incorporated into Yamato.

  • http://www.tofugu.com/ Hashi

    Very interesting! I had no idea.

  • realistic_sugar

    thanks for sharing!

    if anyone is interested in learning more tsugaru-ben, there’s a free podcast called “ii de ba! eigo juku” (いいでば!英語塾). the show is aimed at a japanese audience who wants to learn phrases in both english and tsugaru-ben! 

  • realistic_sugar

    thanks for sharing!

    if anyone is interested in learning more tsugaru-ben, there’s a free podcast called “ii de ba! eigo juku” (いいでば!英語塾). the show is aimed at a japanese audience who wants to learn phrases in both english and tsugaru-ben! 

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2UMEDPM7FI4MFLNPPYYHLJT37E Guozhong Xu

    Welcome to:

    http://www.johnshop.org/

    June Surprises continued.Gift Non-stop.New stock constantly!Come on, dress up!
    Fashion Week, the time discount of brand and enjoy the surprises from the cheap
    Cheapest (TOP) Nike,Air Max, Jordan (1-24) shoes $28
    UGG BOOT $50Nike shox (R4, NZ, OZ, TL1, TL2, TL3) $31
    T-shirts (polo, ed hardy, lacoste) $15Wig $13
    Handbag(LV,Chanel,Coach,DG,ED Hardy.etc.)$30
    Jean (True Religion, ed hardy, coogi)$27
    Sunglasses (Dior, Oakey, coach, Gucci, Armaini)$12
    jersey $ 29 New era cap $16 Belt(ED hardy /LV) $10
    Watch(Rolex) $80 Scarf $21
    Bikini (Ed hardy, Polo,Gucci,LV,Christan Audigier,Affliction) $12
    Accept electronic bank transfer, credit card payment and paypal payment.
    Free Shipping
    Welcome to: 

    http://www.johnshop.org/

    http://www.johnshop.org/

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2UMEDPM7FI4MFLNPPYYHLJT37E Guozhong Xu

    Welcome to:

    http://www.johnshop.org/

    June Surprises continued.Gift Non-stop.New stock constantly!Come on, dress up!
    Fashion Week, the time discount of brand and enjoy the surprises from the cheap
    Cheapest (TOP) Nike,Air Max, Jordan (1-24) shoes $28
    UGG BOOT $50Nike shox (R4, NZ, OZ, TL1, TL2, TL3) $31
    T-shirts (polo, ed hardy, lacoste) $15Wig $13
    Handbag(LV,Chanel,Coach,DG,ED Hardy.etc.)$30
    Jean (True Religion, ed hardy, coogi)$27
    Sunglasses (Dior, Oakey, coach, Gucci, Armaini)$12
    jersey $ 29 New era cap $16 Belt(ED hardy /LV) $10
    Watch(Rolex) $80 Scarf $21
    Bikini (Ed hardy, Polo,Gucci,LV,Christan Audigier,Affliction) $12
    Accept electronic bank transfer, credit card payment and paypal payment.
    Free Shipping
    Welcome to: 

    http://www.johnshop.org/

    http://www.johnshop.org/

  • boomboom

    I just spent 6 months in Akita. Their dialect is absolutely insane.

  • ACollegeGirl

    It’s very problematic to add subjective descriptions like “lazy” to languages. There’s absolutely nothing “lazy” about Tohoku-ben; there are phonological, historical reasons for why it sounds the way it does. People only perceive it as sounding lazy because, like you write, most Japanese not from Tohoku see people from the inaka as uneducated bumpkins.

  • grotesk_faery

    To be really obnoxious and nit-picky, I’d like to point out that an accent is the proper/common structure and pronunciation of a language. For instance, everyone who speaks English speaks it with an English accent, but a foreigner, say maybe German, could speak English with a German accent, hence changing the general pronunciation of words. A dialect is based on a specific region, i.e. the American Midwest, Provence, etc. This changes the way words in a language are pronounced, while still staying mostly true to the general structure/pronunciation (accent) of the language. A vernacular is a type of speech that is adopted by people of a certain class or profession. This is how I learned it in terms of theater because I did some fairly extensive dialect studies, and it’s pretty true to the definitions used by linguists.